Suicide Bombing in Islam



A blistering and necessary chastisement of both the salafists responsible for the attacks that have shocked and divided communities in the UK over the past three months, and of Muslim apathy. And remember Dear Reader: apathy is almost as bad when perceived as when real.

Take home message: blaming foreign policy won’t cut it anymore…


Shaykh Atabek


Sulaiman Ahmed

The recent suicide bombing and terrorist atrocities which took a place in Manchester and London have once again provoked many of the wrong kinds of questions about Islam. Again, ordinary Muslims find themselves besieged by an increasingly emboldened right-wing media and left acutely embarrassed before their friends and colleagues as attacks carried out in the name of their religion become the ‘new normal’ now at home as well as abroad, with the result that, as even friendly commentators have pointed out:

In the wake of the massacre in Manchester, people rightly warn against blaming the entire Muslim community in Britain and the world. Certainly one of the aims of those who carry out such atrocities is to provoke the communal punishment of all Muslims, thereby alienating a portion of them who will become open to recruitment by ISIS and Al Qaeda clones

(Patrick Cockburn: ‘Manchester Attack: It is Pious and Inaccurate to say that Salman Abdis’ Actions Had nothing to do With Islam’ The Independent, 24th May 2017)

Ordinary Muslims see not only their public image destroyed, but also face discrimination socially and economically as a result: the kind of ‘heat’ this brings on the Muslim body public affects everything from their chances of being denied boarding on a flight to their prospects of getting the job or university course they deserve. And that is to say nothing of the increasing number of Muslims who leave the faith, taking the path of least resistance and avoiding the increasingly fraught and embarrassing position being a Muslim in the West puts them in.

Muslim groups and speakers on the other hand, whether honestly or in most cases with ill-intentioned efforts, rinse and repeat their cycle of blaming ‘the West’ and ‘foreign policy’. Quite apart from the fact that this species of argument is actually made much more academically and eloquently by non-Muslim commentators such as Glen Greenwald or John Pilger, the juvenile attempts of groups such as ‘Hizb ut Tahrir’, who have a great investment and much to gain from Muslims suffering social isolation and blame in the West, help no one. The image it presents to Westerners is of Muslims trying to argue that these attackers are motivated by some form of righteous political violence and are ‘retaliating’ for dead Muslim civilians abroad (there are persistent calls to ban Hizb ut Tahrir on campuses but they are merely plagiarising the same liberals – like Noam Chomsky – that they pretend to hate. In all honesty, you don’t need to ban them. They could be replaced by a monkey with a ‘Guardian’ subscription for all the use the are to Muslims – with the caveat that the monkey might actually come up with something useful to community relations). Quite apart from the obvious tacit consent this gives to these vile individuals’ actions, it neglects the reality that it was the very same Salafist and jihadi affiliations that these groups belong to that demanded the removal of Middle Eastern dictators from Saddam through Ghadaffi to Assad – as Wikileaks and the support of governments from Turkey to Saudi for the wars in Libya and Syria make clear, there is no such thing as ‘Western’ foreign policy since it invariably has the consent of Muslim majority states in the region such as Qatar, the UAE and above all Saudi Arabia – and in any case, the West does exactly what the jihadis want in the Middle East most of the time – removing Assad or Ghaddafi for example. So what exactly are they angry about? Western foreign policy explicitly follows the goals of Salafo-Jihadism – even unto threatening war with Iran and arming Saudi Arabia with the largest weapons deal in history. Much like the Zionist lobby, the Salafists keep both the political right and left on a tight leash.

That is to say nothing of the fact that these types of moronic ‘foreign policy explains everything’ (cut from the same cloth as the ‘she made me do it’ defence from a wife beaters and rapists of old) don’t explain why other groups of people (from the Korean War onwards) who have similarly been subjected to the excesses of the West’s foreign policy don’t seem to resort to knifing people in bars or blowing up eight year olds at concerts.

The sad fact is that many Muslims governments and ‘revival’ movements as well as the Far or ‘Alt’ Right have the exact same goal: they don’t want Muslims to integrate and succeed in the West.

Groups like ‘Hizb ut Tahrir’ are quite explicit in this with their ‘Nation of Islam’ style separationist dogmas masked as ‘revival of the Ummah’ and states like Saudi make it clear that they approve of leaders like Trump regardless of his supporters victimisation of western Muslims: they want you to be alienated from your home country and either be affiliated to their movement or to become recruited by extremists, as is natural when one feels or is persecuted in their own country or domicile. The goals of terrorism are, as Louise Richardson has made wonderfully clear, the ‘Three R’s’ – ‘Revenge, Renown and Retaliation’: by appearing to strike at the ‘oppressors’ (although it is supremely unclear just who the eight-year-old girls killed at the Manchester concert were ‘oppressing’), terrorists satisfy their bloodlust, thereby also gaining renown and kudos and thus new recruits. Their egregious actions provoke a violent response from the governments of the victims (‘retaliation’), thereby causing more alienation and suffering and more recruits for both the jihadis and the Far Right. The people who suffer the most, besides victims and their families, are those Muslims who wish to just get on with their personal and professional lives in the UK or France and have no intention of agitating their compatriots or working towards some fictional utopian ‘Islamic State’ as per the fevered dreams of HT (who strangely, every time one of their more, err, ‘proactive’ Taliban or ISIS Salafist colleagues sets up an alleged ‘Emirate’ or ‘Caliphate’, promptly declare it ‘invalid’).

An excellent illustration of the truth of Richardson’s ‘three R’s are the 9/11 attacks: Al Qaeda claimed to have gained ‘revenge’ on the United States, they certainly achieved much ‘renown’ and thereby recruits and when the US retaliated, first in Afghanistan and then in Iraq (under spurious pretences), the resulting civilian casualties and counter atrocities led to even more radicalisation and recruitment for Al Qaeda – i.e. the war on terror generates more terrorists, but not in the way Muslim apologists claim but rather in the way Cockburn and Richardson do – that this was the intention of Salafist groups all along.

Islamic scholars like myself must endeavour to exercise to help within our field of expertise – but sadly it seems that beyond increasingly stereotyped and vacuous condemnations, we often do not: while well-funded Islamophobes with millions of ‘YouTube’ followers dig up obscure and unreliable fatwas and hadith, we stick to trying to sweep these under the rug using the pretext of ‘unity’ and ‘not airing our dirty laundry in public’, which allows the ideological masters of the jihadis to hide in our midst. Young Muslims, hearing about these fatwas and hadith for the first time in one sided and pseudo-intellectual attacks form either the Alt-Right, Liberals or militant atheists online, too often lose their faith as plain-speaking answers are not forthcoming from the clergy.

On one side ‘Dawah carriers’ and Muslim preachers are claiming that Islam is a religion of peace. They say things like ‘In fact Islam in Arabic means peace’. But on the other hand, they do not have, in the digital age, a monopoly of information and both genuine seekers and jihadis see videos and publications telling them that the ‘scholars’ of Islam give permission and issued legal verdicts (Fatwa) to allow, for instance, suicide bombings. This invariably leads to doubt and or apostasy or the justification to those with violent and separationist proclivities for attacks – neither outcome desirable in the least for Muslims.

Many Muslims are confused and some of them are questioning their faith. Many Non-Muslims are thinking ‘this bloody religion!’. On the defensive platform, we see many Muslim preachers who shout as loud as they can saying ‘Islam is a religion of Peace!’, by closing their eyes to all of the statements of the heads of the schools they follow. This would work if Islamophobes were similarly willing to overlook these opinions and texts, but as a growing wave of Muslim apostasy (which is actually as convenient and good for business for Dawah carriers and preachers as illness is for pharmaceutical companies) shows, they most certainly are not. In this article, I want to discuss the issue of ‘suicide bombing’ specifically and attacks on civilians more generally and break down the issue in to its details and present the opinion of the Muslim scholars and appraise it.

Regretfully, many scholars did give permission for suicide bombing (we will discuss the issues of whether they included civilians as targets later), so there is no point overlooking that or not tackling their erroneous theological leanings and abuse of the texts, for these same false ideas are being reproduced in Jihadi publications and other material, as even a cursory investigation by journalists like Cockburn above have revealed. If we overlook these things because they are uncomfortable or we want to save embarrassment, then the attackers will not spare us the same embarrass.0sment by acting them out on the streets of UK cities.

Suicide attacks are a new issue which did not exist in the past, which is why contemporary scholars have applied principles directly on the holy texts (Quran and Sunnah) and derived their own opinion according to that. Below I want to present some of these opinions. Let me just clarify at the outset that I myself detest and decry suicide bombing and in fact suicide or bombing of any kind, especially those directed against other people than oneself.

    1.Sheikh Muhammad bin Salih al-Uthaimin RA, a famous Saudi Salafi scholar and former teacher of mine, said; ‘Suicide bombing will be permissible if there is a huge benefit for Islam. But it is not permissible to perform it on the individuals who are not the leaders of enemies’.

  1. Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani is another very famous Salafist scholar, quoted endlessly by them as an ‘authority’ in hadith (purported sayings of the Prophet). According to him suicide bombing is permissible only if it is by the order of the Amir (head) of the army or state. As long as it meets this condition it is not called ‘suicide’ but it is called ‘Jihad’. Further, when state leader of Jihad orders someone to commit this act, then that person has to obey even if he dislikes it.

  1. Sheikh Abdulaziz al-Tarifi, who said; Initially it is prohibited, but can be permissible with conditions. It is permissible only if it causes a huge damage in the enemy otherwise it is not permissible. ‘Huge damage’ is such as killing the militant head of the enemy.

  1. Sheikh al-Arur, who said; ‘It is permissible in some scenarios such as preventing very huge harm from Muslims. For example a pilot crashing into the military base of the enemy…’

Some Shite clerics, such as the leader of the Iranian Revolution Ayatollah Khomeini, are also accused of encouraging suicide bombing.

Before looking at the ‘proofs’ of this group, I want to clarify that most scholars of this group are talking about suicide bombing on the battlefield. Yet unfortunately, some of them could be talking about other scenarios (which have to be clarified by them). We will talk about both scenarios in separate chapters.

Why do they think it is permissible? They have presented the following proofs:

  • The verses from Quran which are ‘calling’ to fight against Meccan and non-Muslim antagonists of the Prophet Muhammad, such as; Kill them wherever you catch them! 2;191
  • Suhaib al-Rumi transmitted from the Prophet the story of a child who used to study both from a magician and from a priest. This long story is narrated by ‘Muslim’ in his well-known collection and is very famous so I won’t mention it all. At the end of the story the king orders his servants to kill this child in various ways with no success. Then the child teaches the king just how his servants can kill him and says; ‘Call all of the citizens of your kingdom. Before shooting at me say ‘By the name of the Lord of this child!’. Once they apply his instructions they kill him and all the citizens start believing in God.
  • In many battles, companions of the Prophet shielded him with their body, thereby putting themselves in danger of death. For instance, the companion Abu Talha in the famous battle of Uhud.
  • There is another famous story with Bara bin Malik which is narrated by Baihaqi. In the story, there was a battle between the Persians and Muslims where the Persians locked themselves in a castle and attacked Muslims from the atop the walls. The Muslims were unable to do anything, so Bara sat on a shield and asked them to throw him inside the castle. Once he fought inside, he opened the gate and had over eighty wounds on his body.
  • Muhammad bin Hasan al-Sheibani said; ”If one person charges with his weapon into a thousand enemies, this will be permissible if he hopes to survive or cause huge damage…But if there is neither of these two possibilities then it is disliked, unless he encourages the other Muslims to do what he has done with the enemies…Also, it is permissible if it scares the enemies off.” Jassas, another senior Hanafi Jurist also has confirmed this.

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  • Imam Shafei, one of the famous ‘Four Imams’ of Sunni Muslims said: ‘I don’t think it is a problem if one person with no weapon fights a group of enemies, or hurries to attack even if most probably he is going to be killed. That is because one of the Ansari companions hurried to attack the enemies in the battle of Badr, after the Prophet PBUH encouraging them to fight’.

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  • Ibn Taimiyah, the famous Imam of the Salafis, and the person for whom the various splintered sects of this movement, from Saudi Wahhabis to the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood and Hamas all the way to Shah Wali Allah, beloved of the Indian Subcontinents’ Deobandis, share a common admiration, said: ‘If one person invades into a line of the enemy on his own to benefit Muslims, it will be good even if he believes that he is going to be killed. The following verse is revealed to support this type of act: Some people give their lives to please God. God is the most Kindest with his servants. 2; 207. Some of the companions used to do this act in front of the Prophet PBUH. Khallal has narrated a story where someone jumped into the enemy ranks alone. People said; He has left himself to death! Umar (a senior companion of the Prophet) said; ‘No, he didn’t. But he did something which is mentioned in the following verseSome people give their lives to please God. God is the Kindest with his servants.’’’

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  • Qurtubi, another famous scholar, and also a much beloved proof for Deo-Salafists, mentioned: ‘Scholars have disagreed on the issue of when one person in the battle invades into the front of enemy. [Then he mentioned the scholars who said]…it is permissible to do so as long as he has strength and a genuine intention. If he has no strength then it is considered the same as committing suicide’. Ibn Khuwaizma said: ‘There are two options in the scenario of one person jumping into the group of a hundred enemies or entire army or attacking a group of thieves or fighters or rebels: The first option is that he is sure that he will win and kill them and survive. This option is good. Also, it is good if he thinks that he will be killed but he will cause serious damage or causes something which favours the Muslims. [Then he mentioned the stories of Bara and some other stories.]

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Suicide 7If we do what Muslims are sadly seldom encouraged or equipped to do and analyse these alleged proofs, one who reads through them can clearly see two very obvious points in these texts:

  1. All of the texts are talking about patriotic or heroic acts on the battlefield.
  2. None of the texts are talking about one killing oneself, but putting oneself under conditions where he might be killed by the enemy.

The verses which were presented by this group who favour suicide type missions in battle are invariably of two types; one type is not relevant with suicide bombing at all. The second type can only support one of the above mentioned two points.

As far as the Hadeeths which were mentioned, they again have absolutely no relevance to the point of committing suicide to kill people.

I want to show the weakness of using these type of hadeeths to support suicide bombing:

Firstly, the hadeeth of the child who allegedly encouraged and helped the king to kill him:

  • Using a single chain narration to prove or establish issues pertaining to life and death or bloodshed is not acceptable (at least in Hanafi school).
  • The very same hadeeth supports permissibility of studying black magic. The child favourably comparing the knowledge of the priest with the knowledge of the magician doesn’t prove the fact that he was not studying magic.
  • Servants of the king were unable to kill the boy several times and killed him only by mentioning the name of God. Thus it is not a natural thing, but rather super-natural. As we all know, texts mentioning supernatural things cannot be used as a proof for natural events.
  • There is a big and obvious difference between a suicide bomber who kills himself and others, and between this young man who was killed on his own.
  • A suicide bomber kills himself by his own hands, whereas this boy was killed by the servants of the king.
  • A suicide bomber kills the civilians, whereas the youth guided civilians towards something beneficial that they were unaware of.

Anyone who analyses this narration properly can find a lot of flaws in using it to support suicide bombing, especially if it is going to take the lives of civilians.

As for the second narration, the hadeeth of Bara, I don’t think I have to comment on it at all for sensible people, because Bara after being thrown inside of the castle opened the gate and came out alive. Using this story to support the suicide attacks can only serves to show how weak the understanding of the ones using it is.

As for the opinions of the scholars, they are also in the line with what I have said about the hadeeths and verses. None of that can support suicide bombing at all. It can support one thing only, which is ‘heroic or ‘patriotic’ behaviour against the enemies during a just war and even then only on the battlefield’.

From here we can see clearly that ‘suicide bombing’ is a totally new concept which was not discussed by the scholars of the past (no matter how people may want to twist things to make it appear otherwise).

All of the texts that we have seen were related to the issue one putting himself in danger of being killed with some possibility of surviving. Further, we cannot use the above-mentioned texts of the scholars in the issue of suicide attacks in any case. Therefore, below we have to examine this issue from scratch. None of the above opinions come close to the issue we actually see and face in the recent past. So, we will look into the issue as two different topics:

Islamic rulings concerning suicide bombing against civilians.

Islamic ruling of suicide bombing in the battlefield.

The Islamic ruling about suicide bombing against civilians

Before touching the issue of the ‘suicide bombing of civilians’ we need to know what Muslim scholars from different schools say about killing people who are not engaged in war. I assume when I will answer this question and present the opinion of the scholars, there will be many Muslim academics who may get offended. I want to say in advance, if anyone finds some weird thing in my article then they should not be offended by me because I am only presenting what the scholars of different schools said. First I will present the opinion of the scholar, which I do not accept. Further, I will explain why I don’t accept their opinion. Then I will present what I think to be right opinion and will give the names of the scholars who support that same opinion.

Obviously, some of the incorrect opinions will be offensive and dangerous, and both Muslims of a certain bent and Islamophobes will be unhappy: the Muslims because the dangerous opinions of some of their favourites are exposed and they will hide their embarrassment and complicity by saying ‘why have you mentioned this in public, you are giving ammunition to our enemies etc’. This is the ‘dirty laundry in public’ excuse. Quite apart from the fact that these people should be more concerned with the fact that there is dirty laundry as opposed to complaining about people who try to clean it up, this is a spurious accusation and shows how little knowledge and insight the erstwhile defenders of Muslims have as to the daily difficulties and attacks ordinary believers face: so much of this is already in the arsenal of Islamophobes and the Alt Right that it is frequently deployed against us. And of course, the Islamophobes like to act as if they are heroes who are exposing and addressing the ‘problems’ Islam and get angry when any Muslim has clarified and addressed these problems (of course, many in the ‘Christian’ Right in America, as a case in point, forget the shocking and controversial statements of their own ‘Imams’ such as Martin Luther and their own ‘fatwas’, which can make the most ardent jihadist blush. So, for example, polygyny is ‘degrading to women’ when Muslims mention it but to be swept under the rug when Martin Luther approves it).

Also, because I know that people love to pretend to be confused so that they can instil real confusion in genuine seekers, let me clarify: I am not saying that modern suicidal terrorism in the West (and the Muslim world – where it claims the overwhelming majority of its unfortunate victims) is a result of these opinions and fatwas – though they may have some role to play – merely that by addressing these issues we disarm both the Salafi-Jihadis and the Islamophobes, the former who might seek to privately use them for their purposes and the latter publicly for theirs. As for me, I must confess an equal want of affection for both groups.


‘Types’ of People in Islamic Law

Scholars disagreed in classification of people in Islamic Law: The first group of scholars suggested the following classification;

Humans are split into two; Muslims and Non-Muslims. The Non-Muslims in turn are of two types: Dhimmi and Harbi.

^ Dhimmi is a Non-Muslim who lives in Muslim lands.

^ Harbi is a Non-Muslim who lives in Non-Muslim land.

Now we must ask, according to these Muslim legists, ‘Under which conditions it is permissible to kill the members of these categories?’


Can be sentenced to death by the governor under following conditions: Revenge for murder, Apostasy, Adultery, Homosexuality (according to Malikis, Hanbalis, Shafeis, Salafis, and the latter Hanafis and their contemporary followers known as the Deobandi/Berlawi sects in the subcontinent, but not the authentic Hanafis, and ditto for adultery), highway robbery, Rebellion (only according to the early schools of Ahl Sunnah – Sunnis – but contemporary scholars of all four schools of Sunnis have innovated a new stance where it says ‘if rebellion happens one should kill the governor and not the rebels’ as per the widespread justifications proffered for the Syrian and other uprisings).


A Dhimmi will be treated exactly the same as a Muslim for these legists. So, any of the reasons by which the governor can issue a death penalty to a Muslim except for one issue; If a Dhimmi insults the Prophet or makes fun of some religious issue he should be liable for capital punishment according to the Maliki, Shafei, Hanbali, Salafi and contemporary Hanafi (Deobandi/Berlawi) schools. But according to classical Hanafi school, a Dhimmi cannot be sentenced to death for making fun of the Prophet PBUH etc. I already have written a long article about this issue which could be read here:

Harbi: with regards to this category it is prohibited for Muslims to do two things: cheating them (deception), and breaking promises or contracts. But is there any penalty in killing them? The answer is lamentably ‘No!’ according to the official position of most of the schools of Sunnism (including nowadays what is wrongly called the modern ‘Hanafi’ school). They use the following verse to support their position:

‘And when the sacred months have passed, then kill the polytheists wherever you find them and capture them and besiege them and sit in wait for them at every place of ambush. But if they should repent, establish prayer, and give zakah, let them [go] on their way. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful’. 9;5

This verse is called ‘Ayat al-Saif‘ which means ‘The verse of sword’. Yes, very sadly, many Muslims scholars hold the exact same erroneous and baseless opinion about this verse as the Islamophobes (who are keen to dig up their quotes) do. They believe that the hundreds of verses which order Muslims to ignore the provocations and insults of Non-Muslims and forgive their errors are abrogated by this single verse and few single-chain narrations. (I will comment on this absurd claim of ‘abrogation’ further in a separate article).

Here are some examples of scholars supporting this unconscionable treatment of ‘Harbi’ people (all relevant quotations are from well l known authorities for their respective schools, so they are people that can be deployed to confuse and smear or alternatively radicalise Muslims by Salafis/Islamophobes):

Imam Husain bin Masud al-Baghawi (died 1122 AD) who was a Shafi scholar:

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Follow in red; Husain bin Fadhl said: ‘This verse has abrogated any verse which advises to be patient and ignore the harms of the enemy’.

Imam Qurtubi (died 1273 AD) a Maliki scholar:

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Follow in the red box: ‘Kill the pagans’ proves that killing them is permissible in any way, except mutilation (for example chopping off the ears and nose) which is prohibited. It is possible that Abu Bakr took the explicit meaning of this verse when he was killing the apostates and burning them and stoning them and throwing them from the mountains and throwing them in the water-wells. Also, Ali was doing it. [the second red box] This verse proves that it is permissible to kill them even without giving them Da’wa’.

  1. Abdurrahman bin Nasir al-Sa’di (died 1956 AD) a head of Salafi school.

Follow in the red box: ‘Kill the pagans wherever you catch them’ means in any place and in any time. ‘Catch them’ as a hostage. ‘Surround them’ i.e. keep them tight so that they should not be able to grow in the land which belongs to God, which was created as a worshipping place for his servants. That is because they don’t deserve to live there, and have no right to possess even the size of one hand span of it. It belongs to God, and they are his enemies who are opposing him and his messenger, and willing to remove his religion from Earth. God doesn’t accept but to complete his light even if disbelievers dislike it!

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  1. Abu Laith Samarqandi (died 983 AD) a Hanafi scholar.

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In the red box; ‘This verse has abrogated seventy verses of bearing and patience, not hurting anyone and making a peace-treaty…’

The first group of scholars have presented this verse as ‘proof’ as well as many single chain narrations such as the following:

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In the red box: ‘If Prophet PBUH would want to invade into a village, he would wait in the morning. If he would hear them calling for a prayer (Adhan) he would leave them alone, otherwise he would attack them’

Narrated by Bukhari.

This is the ‘classification’ or taxonomy of humans according to the first group of Muslim scholars. Before reviewing the types of the humans according to the second group, I want to comment on two things: the ‘Verse of the Sword’ (Ayat alSaif) and this Hadeeth of calling for prayer.

As we read above, this verse allegedly has such ‘mega-strength’ (according to these scholars and Islamophobes) that it can abrogate seventy verses of Mercy, Forgiveness, Patience and ignoring the harms caused by enemies, unto their causing bloodshed. I think the readers have already gained a good level of confusion at the inconsistency of the God of the Quran, who claims to be the Most Merciful and Most Compassionate, and actually makes over a billion Muslims believe in his unlimited Mercy, but then later he sends only one verse to burn these seventy verses of a Mercy to ashes! Then the question arises: Is God suffering from multiple personality, so in different places he says different things which contradict with each other? Readers will also not be surprised if such opinions are used, behind closed doors or with the anonymity afforded by the internet, by those taking them seriously, to justify and recruit mass murderers and jihadis.

The answer is very clear however. Just read the verse by yourself and compare it afterwards:

‘And when the sacred months have passed, then kill the polytheists wherever you find them and capture them and besiege them and sit in wait for them at every place of ambush. But if they should repent, establish prayer, and give zakah, let them [go] on their way. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful’. 9;5

If you read it like this, then definitely God is ordering Muslims to kill the pagans outside of the four sacred months.


When you put the verse back to its context then read it, what happens? Let’s read it together (I know reading a full paragraph is a lot of work for Salafis and hatemongers before forming an opinion, but we have to beg their pardon):

[This is a declaration of] disassociation, from Allah and His Messenger, to those with whom you had made a treaty among the polytheists. So travel freely, [O disbelievers], throughout the land [during] four months but know that you cannot cause failure to Allah and that Allah will disgrace the disbelievers. And [it is] an announcement from Allah and His Messenger to the people on the day of the greater pilgrimage that Allah is disassociated from the disbelievers, and [so is] His Messenger. So if you repent, that is best for you; but if you turn away – then know that you will not cause failure to Allah . And give tidings to those who disbelieve of a painful punishment.  Excepted are those with whom you made a treaty among the polytheists and then they have not been deficient toward you in anything or supported anyone against you; so complete for them their treaty until their term [has ended]. Indeed, Allah loves the righteous [who fear Him].  And when the sacred months have passed, then kill the polytheists wherever you find them and capture them and besiege them and sit in wait for them at every place of ambush. But if they should repent, establish prayer, and give zakah, let them [go] on their way. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.  And if any one of the polytheists seeks your protection, then grant him protection so that he may hear the words of Allah . Then deliver him to his place of safety. That is because they are a people who do not know.  How can there be for the polytheists a treaty in the sight of Allah and with His Messenger, except for those with whom you made a treaty at al-Masjid al-Haram? So as long as they are upright toward you, be upright toward them. Indeed, Allah loves the righteous [who fear Him]’. 9;1-7

Now we understand, in plain and unambiguous English or Arabic that the Quran is not talking about any and all pagans in the universe, but that rather about a specific group of pagans who made a peace-treaty and then broke it by committing bloodshed. God is saying publicly in the Major Pilgrimage where there were hundreds of thousands of people that because pagans did not keep to the peace treaty and committed violence and bloodshed, so the peace treaty is now over from Muslims side too.

Then God is ordering Muslims not to fight in the Sacred months even if pagans have broken the peace treaty.

Also, ordering them not to fight pagans next to the Sacred mosque unless they start killing, then Muslims can fight to defend their lives.

Then God is ordering Muslims to carry on keeping their peace treaty with the pagans who have not broken it yet.

Then God is ordering Muslims; If one of the members of the pagan group who broke the peace treaty asks you to protect his life so that he can listen to the teachings of Quran, then give him protection and let him to listen to it. Once he finishes listening take him back to where he is safe!

God re-confirms that that Muslims should be fighting only against the pagans who first agreed to the peace-treaty, then broke it:

‘’And if they break their oaths after their treaty and defame your religion, then fight the leaders of disbelief, for indeed, there are no oaths [sacred] to them; [fight them that] they might cease. Would you not fight a people who broke their oaths and determined to expel the Messenger, and they had begun [the attack upon] you the first time? Do you fear them? But Allah has more right that you should fear Him, if you are [truly] believer’’.  9;12-13

God clearly anticipated wilfully obtuse Salafists and Islamophobes because if anything, it is didactically clear and restated

Thanks to God, this myth of ‘Verse of Sword’ is clarified. Confusion was only caused by taking the verse out of context. These verses were talking about a specific group of pagans who made a peace-treaty with the Prophet, then nonetheless invaded a village of Muslims and killed them. God publicly announced that there is no more treaty after what this specific group of pagans did, a position by no means shocking even to the most committed pacifist (*which Islamophobes and the Zionist or ‘Christian’ Right who pretend to be shocked by this verse and even go so far as to ask for the Quran to be burnt or banned, most certainly are not in any case)

God did not leave us confused with what should we do with the rest of the pagans and explained that too.

After this, I assume, there will be masses of immature ‘Muslim Academics’ and their co-dependant Islamophobe Neo-Con bedfellows who will say; ‘How come all of these scholars didn’t know that it was about a specific group of pagans, and only you know?!’ I am used to this type of silly question from both ethnic Muslims and converts. Just for their attention, here is Imam Nasafi (died 1311) a Hanafi Scholar from Uzbekistan;

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In the red box; ‘When the sacred months are gone then kill the pagans’ [Imam Nasafi comments on ‘pagans’]: the ones who broke the peace-treaty and supported the invasion into your land.

I hope it will put the minds of the silly ‘academics’ to rest!

This is a perfect example which demonstrates that the vast majority of scholars can get the most basic of points wrong. They may totally miss such an important point as the ‘context’ of the holy text. For me it is unforgivable for a scholar to totally ignore the context and to put his own understanding above the textual context. It is the same as a doctor who is supposed to operate on a cancer patient and sees the lung of the human-patient, but then assumes that it is the kidney of a dog and pretends to be a vet! I don’t want to disrespect the scholars – but I do want to highlight the importance not taking the verses out of context.

Prophet of the Mercy invades into any village where there is no Adhan of Fajr?

There are many easy ‘catches’ on this story:

  • The senior companions of the Prophet were very concerned to learn the habits of the Prophet. If he would have the habit of invading and killing the entire village for not reciting Adhan or the call to prayer, then his senior companions would know it. So, how come that none of the senior companions are narrating it, but only one of the junior companions is doing so?
  • Adhan is a ‘Sunnah’, such as greeting the person you meet. There is no death penalty for missing a Sunnah. That would be ridiculous.
  • The Prophet and a group of Sahabah missed both the Adhan and the Fajr prayer in one of their journeys. The famous companion Bilal was left to wake everyone up, but he had fallen asleep. Then the Prophet and everyone else woke up when sun had already risen. Does it mean that according to this hadeeth we had to invade and kill everyone for not reciting Adhan? The Prophet has not been sent to invade and kill, but to spread the message and to stop oppression.

We can carry on adding many more catches on this story almost indefinitely. It is very unlikely to describe the habits of the Prophet. But we will move on to the next chapter.

Types of Humans according to the Quran

There are, in contradistinction to what we have been seeing from some of the scholars above, only in fact two ‘types’ of people according to the Quran:

  1. People who are not involved with bloodshed, rebellion or invasions into the lands of others.
  2. And people who are involved into one of the abovementioned.

Quran has explained these two ‘types of Humans’ in many Verses. Let’s look at one of the places:

Allah does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of religion and do not expel you from your homes – from being righteous toward them and acting justly toward them. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly.

Allah only forbids you from those who fight you because of religion and expel you from your homes and aid in your expulsion – [forbids] that you make allies of them. And whoever makes allies of them, then it is those who are the wrongdoers’’. 60;8-9

So, according to the Quran people are either those who ‘fight and expel others from their homes’, or the ones who ‘do not fight, nor expel others from their homes’. I advise the readers to read the entire Surah Mumtahanah (Chapter 60 of the Holy Qu’ran) to understand this issue clearly.

Further, if we want to know the Islamic ruling on committing a ‘suicide attack’ we have to look into the ruling of each of two things separately:

  1. Killing the members of (abovementioned) two types of Humans
  2. Committing suicide.

Once we know the position of Islam regarding each of these two points, then we can see clearly if it is permissible to commit a ‘suicide attack’.

What is the ruling on killing according to the Quran?

There is no doubt that the default status of causing death to anyone is that it is a dire prohibition. The exemption is only given to the governor in one of three reasons:

  • Punishment for a deliberate murder. The Governor can apply it when it meets two conditions: first is that it has to be proven with certainty that it is deliberate and not a mistake or anything else. The second condition is that the relatives of the victims should actually want and demand revenge. Sometimes the governor can apply it even if the relatives don’t demand it, but circumstances force him to do so (but it is very rare).
  • Causing corruption in the land, such as rebellion, highway robbery etc. In this type of case the governor has a right to give the death penalty. For example, if a group of people will carry weapons and rob people, then the governor is responsible to stop them by peaceful means. If they don’t stop then he has the right to use military means, and kill them if required.
  • Self-defence. If people invade into someone’s house with a weapon and attempt to kill them, then the householder has the right to defend himself anyhow he can.

God said: ‘Because of that, We decreed upon the Children of Israel that whoever kills a soul unless for a soul or for corruption [done] in the land – it is as if he had slain mankind entirely. And whoever saves one – it is as if he had saved mankind entirely. And our messengers had certainly come to them with clear proofs. Then indeed many of them, [even] after that, throughout the land, were transgressors’’. 5;32

This verse came in the exact context where it explains when it is permissible to take someone’s life. God first gave an example of one of the two sons of Adam committing murder. Then God clarified that the act was wrong, and even the killer understood this to be the case. Then God explained that any type of killing beside the abovementioned three is not permissible.

At the end God confirmed that even after him clarifying when it is permissible to take someone’s life, there will be many people who will carry on committing the same sin of murder.

Based on that we know that killing someone without these three reasons is prohibited in Islam, and it is classed according to Quran as ‘it is as if he had slain mankind entirely.’ 

Regardless what is the ruling on committing a suicide, killing the civilians is prohibited in Islam!

Suicide in Islam

Even though it is well known that suicide is prohibited in Islam, I want to quote some proofs and some opinions of scholars:

  1. God said: O you who have believed, do not consume one another’s wealth unjustly but only [in lawful] business by mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves [or one another]. Indeed, Allah is to you ever Merciful. 4;29
  2. Imam Fakhruddin Razi (died 1209 AD) Shafei theologian:

Suicide 12

Imam Razi confirms that a suicide is not permitted!

3. Imam Nasafi too confirms that it is prohibited:

Suicide 13

  1. Imam Zamakshari (died 1143 AD) Hanafi scholar confirms it too;

Suicide 14

5. Qurtubi also supported the prohibition of suicide;

Suicide 15

There are hundreds (if not thousands) of texts from the scholars which confirm the same exactly point of ‘prohibition of committing suicide’.

Here are some hadeeths about committing suicide:

Suicide 16

  1. The one who commits a suicide with metal, will be punished in the hell with the same metal.
  2. Someone had a lot of injuries and he committed a suicide, so God said; My slave has killed himself and didn’t let the death to come naturally, so I will ban him from Paradise.
  3. The one who kills himself by strangling, will be strangling himself in the hell, and the one who kills himself by stabbing will stab himself in Hell.

All above three are narrated by Bukhari and many other scholars [it is the image of a page from Bukhari, chapter of Funeral prayers].

  1. Someone committed a suicide in the time of the Prophet PBUH, and he did not pray a funeral prayer for him. (narrated by Muslim)

Suicide 17

Ibn Hajar commented on this hadeeth:

Suicide 18

Ibn Hajar said; the Hadeeth explicitly means that it is not permissible to pray the funeral rites of a person who committed suicide, and that is the position of Bukhari. What is interesting is that Muslims seem to have suddenly ‘rediscovered’ this under intense media scrutiny following terrorist atrocities committed in their name: (and we at Avicenna make no apologies for being amongst the signatories. As left-wing commentators have pointed out in the wake of these attacks, it is time to stop blaming all Muslims and start blaming some of them – namely the ones responsible. There are no Sufi or Shi’ite jihadists attacking the West – despite the foolish claims of Trump and his Gulf backers – and there is no reason for Muslims to be socially or otherwise punished or handicapped for the excesses of what are invariably a narrow clique of Salafists. Unity with people who make their distaste for Muslims thriving in the West obvious does said Muslims no favours. No one is claiming that all or even most Salafists are violent – just that there is no reason for all Muslims to be sacrificed at the altar of public opinion for the idiosyncrasies of a few who vociferously claim to represent ‘the Islam of the Salaf’ and then strangely seem to produce all the attackers in the west – and practically everywhere else – from amongst their ranks. Salafis always cry victimisation and slander and demand ‘unity’ when they are singled out as a problem – but the tolerance they extend to others in areas where they enjoy sway, such as Saudi Arabia, is well known and rightly lamented. One is reminded of wolves who would like to transform into sheep, but only for as long as the farmer comes by).

Imam Malik said; The one who commits suicide won’t be forgiven.

Again, I can quote thousands of texts from Quran, Hadeeth, and books of the scholars and all of them will support one and only thing – namely the ‘prohibition of committing suicide’.

Just to clarify; I do not hold the opinion that one who commits suicide will never be forgiven by God as Malik said, and also I don’t support each and every opinion of the scholars. I am just presenting the opinions to show that suicide of whatever kind is not part of Islam.


We have, I trust, abundantly clearly learnt:

  1. Killing civilians is absolutely prohibited according to Quranic Islam – the only truly certain kind of Islam. Any justification otherwise, for suicide attacks and killing civilians, whomsoever it may be from, is a flagrant perversion of common sense and even linguistics itself. Gullible and radicalised Muslims and Islamophobes need to be reminded of the saying ‘the Devil can quote Scripture’, though in this case, there is nothing to be found in the scripture for him to quote. Rather, suicide bombing is regretfully on occasion ‘justified’ by Muslims using very questionable narrations and fatwas of scholars, which it is an affront to the word of God to impose onto the clear and obvious understanding of the Quran.
  2. Committing suicide is prohibited according to both Quranic and ‘opinionated’ Islam. There is just no way around this. Even ‘Kamikaze’ style attacks on the battlefield in wartime have lamentably inappropriate an inapplicable ‘justifications’, as we saw in detail above: I mean you can’t really get worse than justifying suicide missions or Kamikaze attacks by using ‘proofs’ such as hadiths where the alleged suicide attacker…comes out alive. Such ‘proofs’ tell us more about the motivations and morality of the ones offering them up than either Islam or theology.
  3. There is no such thing in any religion or system of law, at least that I know of, where it says; ‘When two prohibitions come together, it becomes permissible’. It is the same as saying; ‘Drinking wine is prohibited, and so is eating pork. But if you drink wine and eat pork at the same time, no stress, it is permissible’. Thus it is with suicide bombing: killing civilians is forbidden and suicide is forbidden, so doing them both is forbidden squared, so to speak. We won’t even mention the fact that killing people or even plants by fire is not allowed in Islam at all – since people who don’t ‘get’ the blatant prohibitions of the Quran have even more idiotic and morally bankrupt ‘justifications’ to get around this. Suffice to say that if you can stare into the abyss of their stupidity and bloodlust, you will not return unmolested.
  4. It is entirely possible for the vast majority of scholars to agree on an error and/or to take the holy texts out of their context and damage their meaning. There is absolutely no guarantee from God or Islam that this will not happen or that the ‘majority is right’ (Muslims are happy to mimic the tyranny of the majority found in some democratic systems when it suits them). Therefore, following the majority is not permissible, but one has to follow the clear, obvious and strongest proofs. This is obviously very difficult for the anti-rational and anti-intellectual Salafist orientations in Islam who have very ‘helpful’ debates on whether using the intellect is ‘prohibited’ (though one wonders how they go about having such discussions about the importance of blind following and rejecting reason without in fact deploying their intellect in the first place. It seems analogous to committing fornication without the use of one’s penis) and thus it is no surprise that the people who disgrace and victimise Muslims in the West invariably come from among their ranks, as even Liberals are now noticing. However, it is the case with such people that it is not Islam or religion that is the cause but rather that you cannot reason someone out of a position they were never reasoned into in the first place and on a related note, as has been well spoken: those who can make you believe absurdities can make you commit atrocities. Sadly, there are many non-violent orientations in Islam which are committed to making you believe absurdities, moral and other kinds, and indeed take it as a mark of profound faith the degree to which you commit to them. They are then surprised when some of their followers turn violent. I find their (often genuine) surprise…surprising.
  5. Islam is presented and explained by God, and everyone else has to follow that. ‘Everyone else’ includes the scholars and laymen, regardless if they are the majority or the minority. Islamophobes and Salafists, please deal with this, get over it, etc.

I think that the light, mercy and clarification that we find in the Quran is sufficient for the people who have brain. But the others are like a dead people who cannot see, nor they can hear so they won’t contemplate. What can you do?


31 thoughts on “Suicide Bombing in Islam

  1. I ACTUALLY don’t think that the majority of the scholars held the position that the “verse of the sword” as it is called abrogated all other verses about withholding from fighting those who do not fight the muslims. I mean, I am not sure. But don’t most scholars understand the ayaat of surah tawbah to be for a specific context?

    I have quotes upon quotes upon quotes of scholars who say that killing civilians is prohibited. The hadiths about it are so clear. From prohibition of killing hired servants, to women, to children, to the elderly, to monks (because monks don’t participate in fighting usually) and so and so forth.

    I had thought that the vast majority of scholars were NOT of the opinion that killing civilians is allowed. And dividing people into groups such as “harbi” etc is just a taxonomical reference and not necessarily something that shows that you can kill him???

    Oh and please don’t misunderstand me. I know we have some problems today with the almost sanctification of scholars and of many muslims seeming to put their intellect on the shelf in many matters pertaining to Islamic law and thus they misinterpret many things.

    And yes, I also found that opinion that that one verse would abrogate so so many verses to be an opinion that is incredibly weak. ESPECIALLY when it is obvious from the verses that it is about a specific context and a specific people.

    • Thanks for reading!

      Well, you saw the presented scholars and their direct quotes: how do you think they interpreted the evidence and the hadith? More important is Shukrov’s point that the majority opinion is of no consequence as it can be wrong – or to quote Galileo (= Hanafi):

      …for in the sciences the authority of thousands of opinions is not worth as much as one tiny spark of reason in an individual man’


      ‘In questions of science the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual’

      Also, the matter of killing needing to be clarified in hadith and ‘opinions’ – if Quran can’t even clear that up, then why do we need Quran at all?

      It’s not a taxonomic preference I’m afraid:

      My point is that it is about accepting that there is likely a path dehumanising fatwas (I mean you have to ask yourself what the jihadis are USIUNG to radicalise Muslims – surely its not ‘The Guardian’ and ‘Washington Post’ critiques of foreign policy? They musty have some texts. Shukurov is attempting to tackle them it seems) to killing people.

      Its like the Dawah guys who pretend that the brutal punishment for adultery is a ‘deterrent’. Quite apart from the fact that most of these men can’t even get their own wife to have sex with them without throwing several volumes of ‘Bukhari’ at her as ‘proof of their conjugal rights’, let alone any other women, it begs the question of why do you need a worse deterrent for adultery than murder? The answers when looked at with a critical eye are utterly excremental.

      Basically, the REAL excuse is that:

      1) No one acted on these fatwas (*except they sometimes did and do). Not a big deal of an excuse really – if you acted like that now or in the Islamic empires of the past, the non-Muslims would take you out like it was prom night. This is also the reason that most of the large, long lasting and multi ethnic empires were Hanafi – they don’t believe this crap and non-Muslims had little to fear.
      2) Other groups had way worse human rights for minorities and even their own believers than Muslims. Which was true then. But doesn’t wash now.

      In the past AND today, people in power and Empires and nations needed various justifications to kill people, their own and others. Today these justifications are served by the media-academic complex. in the past it was kings and demagogues but also sometimes the clergy.
      So it is not surprising that these fatwas are there. Doesn’t matter if they are the majority or not. The point is to indetify Salafis and their unIslamic practises as the problem. Unless you want to take the hit for them. I certainly don’t.

  2. By the way. People should not get confused about something. Some scholars may say that there is no punishment for killing a “harbi” but that doesn’t mean that it is not haram. That is because if there was a state operating with shariah law, then that state would only punish for what happens within it’s juristriction. And if such a state does not have an official treaty with members of another state then the state does not interfere with what a person might do with such people – that however does not mean that it is not haram to kill such a person.

    As far as I understand, that is how the hanafi’s explain the narration which says something along the lines that there is no qisas (or is it blood money?) for the kaffir. They say it does not mean the kaffir living in an Islamic state but the kaffir who has no relations with the Islamic state (meaning no treaty etc).

  3. That’s just not true. if you deploy this argument even to a friendly non-Muslim who knows his stuff you will get destroyed.
    There were even incidents in early Islam where the Hanafis and Hanbalis had a massive riot about the latter protesting at the revenge killing of a Muslim for a Christian he had murdered, in the state.

    Anyway, with respect, you don’t know what you are talking about. That’s not the fatwa. its explained in the article I linked you to with the references. Fatwa is: Muslim not to be killed for non-Muslim. Period. Nothing about ‘it is haraam’, nothing about Islamic state or not. And blood money to be paid is also reduced – so how do you explain that? If its to do with not being involved in matters outside the state, how come there is a punishment for it but 1/3 of the blood money? So what you said doesn’t even make sense to a critical person who doesn’t know about Islam even. Because – logical error sin’t it? You can get offended if you want but I wish someone told me bluntly when I used to come up with stuff like this – my life would have been easier.

    I know you are trying to help, but you have to have your game tighter than that. Or you will get burned. You heard this ‘explanation’ from some modern scholar/dawah guy. Traditionally, there is just Shafis and Hanbalis on one side saying if you kill a non-Muslim = small fine (= just relax) and Hanafis and others saying WTH?! It’s murder. Hanafis won and were right, for obvious reasons.

    • “A believer is not to be killed for a disbeliever or for a person enjoying protection under a covenant [a dhimmi].” (Reported by Ahmad, An-Nasa’i and Abu Dawood)

      Exact opposite of what you were told isn’t it?

      Islamophobes know all of this stuff. The correct answer is that mainstream Muslims then and now REJECT this stuff as it BLATANTLY CONTRADICTS QURAN.

  4. Real question is why the people who teach you this stuff are willing to risk your iman and the reputation of Islam to protect the ‘reputation’ of their favourite scholars from the past.

    If the scholar I follow, Abu Hanifa, said something blatantly dumb like that, I would just say ‘it’s dumb, he done messed up’.

  5. As Salamu Alaykum

    He is right. Killing a harbi is a sin but there is no retaliation for it. It is left for the day of judgement. However a discretionary punishment can be issued.
    Killing a dhimmi is a bigger sin because a dhimmi is explicitly guaranteed protection. There are differences of opinion between the schools regarding the punishment of a dhimmi. But none of them go against the Qur’an. If someone would abuse the fact that he can kill dhimmies without being put to death a discretionary imprisonment could stop him.
    So the Hanafi position of Qisas for the dhimmi is good but also the Shafii position of no Qisas for the dhimmi is good too.

    • No it’s not good and they don’t believe that.
      You are are ignorant of that or willfully ignoring it. Sorry, but I gave the references and still you keep insisting.

      You also don’t know about discretionary punishment. It can’t go above 30 lashes.

      • I agree that the Hanafi school has qisas for killing a dhimmi. But there is no qisas for killing a harbi. At least I have not read the opposite.

        As for the other schools, there is no qisas but discretionary punishment can always be applied. Otherwise it would be the case that a big number of Muslim scholars believed a Muslim could go and kill a whole town of dhimmis and only pay money as punishment. This is a dehumanization of Muslims (Muslim scholars) that is usually only done by Islamophobes.

        “You also don’t know about discretionary punishment. It can’t go above 30 lashes.”

        Can you give some references for this?

      • Two narrations come in my copy Kitāb al-Āthār that ta`zīr can’t be anything more than 40 lashes. RasūlAllāh ﷺ is quoted as referring to anyone who exceeds that as a “mu`tad.” Serious stuff.

  6. Dude I think you have me confused with some guy trying to protect the scholars. I thought I made it clear that I think we have a problem today where scholars’ opinions are “respected even though they are not followed” or that “their ijtihad is accepted” no matter how crazy their conclusions are (such as thinking you can have sex with your illigitimate daughter).

    I am with the hanafi’s on the point of equal retaliation for murder (that seems to make sense to me) – although, I read somewhere that the early hanafi’s did not think there was equal retaliation for a master killing his own slave (maybe you could clear that up some time?). And again, even if they did, I won’t believe it’s from Islam just because “the early hanafi’s said so” I am not a fanboy of any particular school or their leaders. I understand perfectly well that human beings can make mistakes.

    In any case, I am not one to succumb to “tradition” just because it’s “traditional interpretations”. I am a human being and all praise is due to my Creator that He bestowed me with an intellect.

    I don’t care how “mainstream and traditional” shaafi mustalah is or the approach that some scholars have that “if the chain is connected, it absolutely must be true” – I know that a single chained narration is probabalistic and not certain – and no I did not get that idea from “Greek philosophy”.

    And I don’t care if most scholars considered that a slave woman (even a muslim slave woman) was allowed to show her breasts in public. I am with the scholars such as Albaani and Ibn Hazm on this point that they had to cover up. And that does not mean that I support Albaani in all things. It is clear for me from the Qur’aan that women have to cover up because the Qur’aan mentions the believing women in general – and certainly, a slave woman can be better than a free woman.
    And I don’t care if most muslims in the past practiced this. The idea that the muslims living under the caliphates that were not of the sahaba somehow all were pious people that could never do any wrong and that huge misconceptions could not have spread in society and that pre-Islamic customs could not have found it’s way into society again and even creep into the ideas and opinions of scholars because “knowledge was so spread and everybody was so pious” is simply just being incredibly naive.

    But some scholars approach to the Qur’aan almost seem to be that they think it’s some mystical book that cannot be understood at all unless going to some single chained narrations and some certain peoples interpretations.
    That’s an idea that does not make any sense to me.

    Don’t misunderstand me. I simply just thought that most scholars were of the opinion that civilians are not to be harmed. I know that some considered kufr to be a basis for killing, but I thought that most scholars did not. And I know for a fact that some do not. As I said, I have quotes upon quotes about it. And even if most did – I still won’t succumb to their faulty interpretations.

  7. As a matter of fact: Muslims like you guys make me feel less lonely (even though I might not agree with you on every single point) among the masses of Muslims who have taken upon themselves an approach to Islam that is almost phobic of the intellect or rationality and almost seem to sanctify their scholars and have a culture that tolerates unreasonability.

  8. Fathullah – yes, as soon as you give me some references for the rubbish you are spouting.

    Since, you know, I already have full article on this subject, full of references which you didn’t bother to read. I also wrote a whole article full of references about discretionary punishment. Avail yourself of that. But you are in no position to ask for references anyway.

    I had to write that because of idoit people like you, who get crushed by Islamophobes because of ”arguments’ in your arsenal such as ‘only Islamophobes say that’ and ‘I haven’t heard’, No one cares what you have ‘heard’. And there is no principle in ‘Shafi” fiqh that because it results in ‘dehumansiation’ or sounds like you could just kill people, you thus can’t do it. The whole point of the article is that they DID indeed give such fatwas that result in dehumansiation. Anyway, the quotes from the relevant schools and their position on killing non-Muslims were given in TWO articles. Address them or get lost. Study or shut up. And don’t debate any Islamophobes please.

  9. Fathullah: Again, again, again, again; its a disagreement. Some said that it (discretionary punishment) could only go up to the lowest hadd punishment , some said that it was for how the judge saw fit basically. But to think that people who are willing to murder somebody and who do not care much for it being haram and only thinks about the wordly punishment, is going to be detered much from murdering somebody becuase they might get caught and get around 30 lashes – that’s being naive.

    If this is your interpretation, then under such a state, then a dhimmi would know that the states punishment for murder is not much of a deterrent and he would be afraid to mess with the wrong people. On the contrary, the shariah is supposed to let people feel safe and that there should be safety amongst people.

    So this interpretation is obviously not the correct understanding of the shariah (that a Muslim would only get 30 lashes or so for murdering a dhimmi).

    • Tazeer can also be imprisonment.

      Also do not forget that there is a punishment for hiraba (robbery) that can be death also when the victims are dhimmis in all madhhabs.

  10. Excellent article, which I think 100 percent refutes the myth of violence in Islam, especially by suicide bombing. I do have one question though. How do we prove the Hanafi School is more legitimate than the Maliki’s, Shafi’s or other schools which say the whole non-Muslim not equal to Muslims thing as I’ve seen Islamophobes make arguments like “see, an school in Islam supports such and such actions, so Islam is evil, etc”.

    • I don’t think you really can against islamophobes. I mean you can show them the evidence, but they’ll still say “some of the scholars said otherwise”. If you cannot even do it against many Muslims who have this approach of almost sanctifying their scholars and see almost every opinion of them as “a legitimate opinion to follow”, then how would you do against non-muslims?

  11. Contrary to popular misconceptions, the theme of religious freedom is found in abundance in the Qurʾān. The Holy Book thus explains that, (Translations mostly from Abdel-Haleem, same for footnotes)

    1. Differences in people’s beliefs are bound to happen

    Verses that point out that the difference between people in matters of belief is a divine will from his Will, and hence it is something that happened and will continue to happen until the Day of Judgement.


    We favoured some of these messengers above others. God spoke to some; others He raised in rank; We gave Jesus, son of Mary, Our clear signs and strengthened him with the holy spirit. If God had so willed, their successors would not have fought each other after they had been brought clear signs. But they disagreed: some believed and some disbelieved. If God had so willed, they would not have fought each other, but God does what He will.

    Qurʾān — 2:253


    We sent to you [Muḥammad] the Scripture with the truth, confirming the Scriptures that came before it, and with final authority over them: so judge between them according to what God has sent down. Do not follow their whims, which deviate from the truth that has come to you. We have assigned a law and a path to each of you. If God had so willed, He would have made you one community, but He wanted to test you through that which He has given you, so race to do good: you will all return to God and He will make clear to you the matters you differed about.

    Qurʾān — 5:48


    If you find rejection by the disbelievers so hard to bear, then seek a tunnel into the ground or a ladder into the sky, if you can, and bring them a sign: God could bring them all to guidance if it were His will, so do not join the ignorant.

    Qurʾān — 6:35


    Follow what has been revealed to you from your Lord, there is no God but Him. Turn away from those who join other gods with Him.

    If it had been God’s will, they would not have done so, but We have not made you their guardian, nor are you their keeper.

    Qurʾān — 6:106–107


    Say, ‘The conclusive argument belongs to God alone. Had He so willed He would
    have guided you all.’

    Qurʾān — 6:149


    All people were originally one single community, but later they differed. If it had not been for a wordᵃ from your Lord, the preordained judgement would already have been passed between them regarding their differences.

    Qurʾān — 10:19

    ᵃ : Postponing judgement.


    And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed –– all of them entirely. Then, [O Muḥammad], would you compel the people in order that they become believers?

    Qurʾān — 10:99


    If your Lord had pleased, He would have made all people a single community, but they continue to have their differences –– except those on whom your Lord has mercy –– for He created them to be this way, and the word of your Lord is final: ‘I shall definitely fill Hell with both jinn and men.’

    Qurʾān — 11:118–119


    If there were ever to be a Qurʾān with which mountains could be moved, the earth shattered, or the dead made to speak [it would have been this one],ᵃ but everything is truly in God’s hands. Do the believers not realize that if God had so willed, He could have guided all mankind? As for the disbelievers, because of their misdeeds, disaster will not cease to afflict them or fall close to their homes until God’s promise is fulfilled: God never fails to keep His promise.

    Qurʾān — 13:31

    ᵃ : Or ‘[they still would not believe]’.


    God points out the right path, for some paths lead the wrong way: if He wished, He could guide you all.

    Qurʾān — 16:9


    If God so willed, He would have made you all one people, but He leaves to stray whoever He will and guides whoever He will. You will be questioned about your deeds.

    Qurʾān — 16:93


    We have appointed acts of devotion for every community to observe, so do not let them argue with you [Prophet] about this matter. Call them to your Lord––you are on the right path––and if they argue with you, say, ‘God is well aware of what you are doing.’

    Qurʾān — 22:67–68


    ‘If it had been Our will, We could certainly have given every soul
    its true guidance, but My words have come true. “I shall be sure to fill Hell with jinn and men together.”

    Qurʾān — 32:13


    If God had so pleased, He could have made them a single community, but He admits to His mercy whoever He will; the evildoers will have no one to protect or help them.

    Qurʾān — 42:8


    2. Judgement between people in their differences in belief is in the Day of Resurrection and not in this earthly world

    Verses that show that the decision and final judgement between people in their differences in belief isn’t in this abode but it is in the abode of the Hereafter.


    The Jews say, ‘The Christians have no ground whatsoever to stand on,’ and the Christians say, ‘The Jews have no ground whatsoever to stand on,’ though they both read the Scripture, and those who have no knowledge say the same; God will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection concerning their differences.

    Qurʾān — 2:113


    God said, ‘Jesus, I will take you back and raise you up to Me: I will purify you of the disbelievers. To the Day of Resurrection I will make those who follow you superior to those who disbelieved. Then you will all return to Me and I will judge between you regarding your differences.

    Qurʾān — 3:55


    The [hypocrites] wait to see what happens to you and, if God brings you success, they say, ‘Were we not on your side?’ but if the disbelievers have some success, they say to them, ‘Did we not have the upper hand over you, and [yet] protect you from the believers?’ God will judge between you all on the Day of Resurrection, and He will give the disbelievers no means of overcoming the believers.

    Qurʾān — 4:141


    We sent to you [Muḥammad] the Scripture with the truth, confirming the Scriptures that came before it, and with final authority over them: so judge between them according to what God has sent down. Do not follow their whims, which deviate from the truth that has come to you. We have assigned a law and a path to each of you. If God had so willed, He would have made you one community, but He wanted to test you through that which He has given you, so race to do good: you will all return to God and He will make clear to you the matters you differed about.

    Qurʾān — 5:48


    You who believe, you are responsible for your own souls; if anyone else goes astray it will not harm you so long as you follow the guidance; you will all return to God, and He will make you realize what you have done.

    Qurʾān — 5:105


    Say, ‘I stand on clear proof from my Lord, though you deny it. What you seek to hasten is not within my power. Judgement is for God alone: He tells the truth, and He is the best of judges.’

    Say, ‘If what you seek to hasten were within my power, the matter would be settled between you and me, but God knows best who does wrong.’

    Qurʾān — 6:58–59


    He is the Supreme Master over His subjects. He sends out recorders to watch over you until, when death overtakes any of you, those sent by Us take his soul–– they never fail in their duty.

    Then they will all be returned to God, their true Lord. The Judgement truly belongs to Him, and He is the swiftest of reckoners.

    Qurʾān — 6:61–62


    We settled the Children of Israel in a good place and provided good things as sustenance for them. It was only after knowledge had come to them that they began to differ among themselves. Your Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection regarding their differences.

    Qurʾān — 10:93


    [Prophet], follow what is being revealed to you, and be steadfast until God gives His
    judgement, for He is the Best of Judges.

    Qurʾān — 10:109


    The Sabbath was made obligatory only for those who differed about it. On the Day of Resurrection your Lord will judge between them as to their differences.

    Qurʾān — 16:124


    As for the believers, those who follow the Jewish faith, the Sabians, the Christians, the Magians, and the idolaters, God will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection; God witnesses all things.

    Qurʾān — 22:17


    On that Day control will belong to God: He will judge between them. Those who believe and do good deeds will be admitted to Gardens of Delight, while those who disbelieve and reject Our revelations will receive a humiliating torment.

    Qurʾān — 22:56–57


    And whoever invokes besides God another deity for which he has no proof – then his account is only with his Lord. Indeed, the disbelievers will not succeed.

    Qurʾān — 23:117


    He is God; there is no god but Him; all praise belongs to Him in this world and the next; His is the Judgement; and to Him you shall be returned.

    Qurʾān — 28:70


    [Prophet], it is your Lord who will judge between
    them on the Day of Resurrection concerning their differences.

    Qurʾān — 32:25


    Say, ‘God! Creator of the heavens and earth! Knower of all that is hidden and all that is open, You will judge between Your servants regarding their differences.’

    Qurʾān — 39:46


    [They will be told], ‘This is all because when God alone was invoked you rejected this, yet when others were associated with Him you believed [in them].’ Judgement belongs to God the Most High, the Most Great.

    Qurʾān — 40:12


    Whatever you may differ about is for God to judge. [Say], ‘Such is God, my Lord. In Him I trust and to
    Him I turn,

    Qurʾān — 42:10


    How can they believe in others who ordain for them things which God has not sanctioned in the practice of their faith? If it were not for God’s decree concerning the final Decision, judgement would already have been made between them. The evildoers will have a grievous punishment––

    Qurʾān — 42:21


    Neither your kinsfolk nor your children will be any use to you on
    the Day of Resurrection: He will separate you out. God sees everything you do.

    Qurʾān — 60:3


    Indeed, to Us is their return.

    Then indeed, upon Us is their account.

    Qurʾān — 88:25–26


    3. Compulsion and coercion is prohibited, and it is the way of the unbelievers and believers are its victims

    Verses that prohibit compulsion in religion and that show that it is the way of the unbelievers –– and not Prophets and their followers –– who use different methods such as compulsion, torture, slaughter, stoning, expulsion from homes, …etc to oppress believers to make them revert from their religion.


    There is no compulsion in religion: true guidance has become distinct from error, so whoever rejects false gods and believes in God has grasped the firmest hand-hold, one that will never break. God is all hearing and all knowing.

    Qurʾān — 2:256


    And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed – all of them entirely. Then, [O Muḥammad], would you compel the people in order that they become believers?

    Qurʾān — 10:99


    He said, ‘O my people have you considered: if I should be upon clear evidence from my Lord while He has given me mercy from Himself but it has been made unapparent to you, should we force it upon you while you are averse to it?

    Qurʾān — 11:28


    His people’s arrogant leaders said, ‘Shu’ayb, we will expel you and your fellow believers from our town unless you return to our religion.’ He said, ‘What! Even if we detest it?

    Qurʾān — 7:88


    With the exception of those who are forced to say they do not believe, although their hearts remain firm in faith, those who reject God after believing in Him and open their hearts to disbelief will have the wrath of God upon them and a grievous punishment awaiting them.

    Qurʾān — 16:106


    [The people of Shu’ayb said to him:]

    They said, ‘Shu’ayb, we do not understand much of what you
    say, and we find you very weak in our midst. But for your family, we
    would have stoned you, for you have no great status among us.’

    Qurʾān — 11:91


    [The father of Abraham said to him:]

    His father answered, ‘Abraham, do you reject my gods? I will stone you if you do not stop this. Keep out of my way!’

    Qurʾān — 19:46


    [And the people of the two of Antakiya said to their prophets:]

    but they answered, ‘We think you are an evil omen. If you do not stop, we shall stone you, and inflict a painful torment on you.’

    Qurʾān — 36:18


    [And one amongst the companions of the cave said about his polytheist people:]

    Indeed, if they come to know of you, they will stone you or return you to their religion. And never would you succeed, then – ever.

    Qurʾān — 18:20


    [And the people of Noah said to him:]

    So they said, ‘Noah, if you do not stop this, you will be stoned.’

    Qurʾān — 26:116


    [And in the Qurʾān the attrocities of Pharaoh – such as his execution and slaughtering of those who believed with Moses – were mentioned in many instances.]

    Remember when We saved you from Pharaoh’s people, who subjected you to terrible torment, slaughtering your sons and sparing only your women––this was a great trial from your Lord––

    Qurʾān — 2:49


    damned were the makers of the trench, the makers of the fuel-stoked fire! They sat down to watch what they were doing to the believers. Their only grievance against them was their faith in God, the Mighty, the Praiseworthy, to whom all control over the heavens and earth belongs: God is witness over all things.

    Qurʾān — 85:4-9


    The disbelievers said to their messengers, ‘We shall expel you from our land unless you return to our religion.’ But their Lord inspired the messengers: ‘We shall destroy the evildoers, and leave you to dwell in the land after them. This reward is for those who are in awe of meeting Me, and of My warnings.’

    Qurʾān — 14:13–14


    [And about the people of Lot:]

    The only answer his people gave was to say, ‘Expel Lot’s followers from your town! These men mean to stay chaste!’

    Qurʾān — 27:56

    The only response his people gave was to say [to one another], ‘Drive them out of your town! These men want to keep themselves chaste!’

    Qurʾān — 7:82


    [Prophet], consider the leaders of the Children of Israel who came after Moses, when they said to one of their prophets, ‘Set up a king for us and we shall fight in God’s cause.’ He said, ‘But could it be that you would not fight, if it were ordained for you?’ They said, ‘How could we not fight in God’s cause when we and our children have been driven out of our homeland?’ Yet when they were commanded to fight, all but a few of them turned away: God has full knowledge of those who do wrong.

    Qurʾān — 2:246


    [And about the expulsion of the Prophet ﷺ from Makkah:]

    And indeed, they were about to drive you from the land to evict you therefrom. And then [when they do], they will not remain [there] after you, except for a little.

    Qurʾān — 17:76

    And [remember, O Muḥammad], when those who disbelieved plotted against you to restrain you or kill you or evict you [from Makkah]. But they plan, and God plans. And God is the best of planners.

    Qurʾān — 8:30

    You who believe, do not take My enemies and yours as your allies, showing them friendship when they have rejected the truth you have received, and have driven you and the Messenger out simply because you believe in God, your Lord –– not if you truly emigrated in order to strive for My cause and seek My good pleasure. You secretly show them friendship –– I know all you conceal and all you reveal –– but any of you who do this are straying from the right path. If they gain the upper hand over you, they will revert to being your enemies and stretch out their hands and tongues to harm you; it is their dearest wish that you may renounce your faith.

    Qurʾān — 60:1–2


    [About the believers amongst the followers of Muḥammad ﷺ]

    those who have been driven unjustly from their homes only for saying, ‘Our Lord is God.’ If God did not repel some people by means of others, many monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, where God’s name is much invoked, would have been destroyed. God is sure to help those who help His cause –– God is strong and mighty ––

    Qurʾān — 22:40

    [… and about it:]

    Their Lord has answered them: ‘I will not allow the deeds of any one of you to be lost, whether you are male or female, each is like the other [in rewards]. I will certainly wipe out the bad deeds of those who emigrated and were driven out of their homes, who suffered harm for My cause, who fought and were killed. I will certainly admit them to Gardens graced with flowing streams, as a reward from God: the best reward is with God.’

    Qurʾān — 3:195

    The poor emigrants who were driven from their homes and possessions, who seek God’s favour and approval, those who help God and His Messenger –– these are the ones who are true –– [shall have a share].

    Qurʾān — 59:8

    But God forbids you to take as allies those who have fought against you for your faith, driven you out of your homes, and helped others to drive you out: any of you who take them as allies will truly be wrongdoers.

    Qurʾān — 60:9

    Fight in God’s cause against those who fight you, but do not overstep the limits:ᵃ God does not love those who overstep the limits. Kill them wherever you encounter them,ᵇ and drive them out from where they drove you out, for persecution is more serious than killing.ᶜ Do not fight them at the Sacred Mosque unless they fight you there. If they do fight you, kill them –– this is what such disbelievers deserve –– but if they stop, then God is most forgiving and merciful. Fight them until there is no more persecution, and worshipᵈ ᵉ is devoted to God. If they cease hostilities, there can be no [further] hostility, except towards aggressors.

    Qurʾān — 2:190–193

    ᵃ : The Arabic command la ta’tadu is so general that commentators have agreed that it includes prohibition of starting hostilities, fighting non-combatants, disproportionate response to aggression, etc.
    ᵇ : The Muslims were concerned as to whether it was permitted to retaliate when attacked within the sacred precincts in Mecca when on pilgrimage (see Q.2:196). They are here given permission to fight back wherever they encounter their attackers, in the precinct or outside it.
    ᶜ : ‘Persecuting you unlawfully is worse than you killing them in the precincts in self-defence.’ The article al- in Arabic sometimes takes the place of a pronoun, as here ‘their persecution’ and ‘your killing them’, it is not the generic al-, cf. Q.2:217. See also Q.2:217 below.
    ᵈ : Worship at the sacred mosque.
    ᵉ : Cf. Q.8:39 and note ᶜ to Q.2:191 above.


    They ask you [Prophet] about fighting in the prohibited month. Say, ‘Fighting in that month is a great offence, but to bar others from God’s path, to disbelieve in Him, prevent access to the Sacred Mosque, and expel its people, are still greater offences in God’s eyes: persecution is worse than killing.’ᵃ They will not stop fighting you [believers] until they make you revoke your faith, if they can. If any of you revoke your faith and die as disbelievers, your deeds will come to nothing in this world and the Hereafter, and you will be inhabitants of the Fire, there to remain.

    Qurʾān — 2:217

    ᵃ : To persecute people for believing in God is a worse offence than for the aggrieved party to fight back in the prohibited month. This further explains verse 191.


    [And concerning the persecution of prophets and messengers mentally and physically, the Qur’an points out that everyone of them suffered from these, …]

    but We have always appointed adversaries from the wicked, for every prophet: Your Lord is sufficient guide and helper.

    Qurʾān — 25:31

    [… and they range from threat to death, passing by torture, expulsion to humiliation. We’ll list here some few examples: Starting with Abraham:]

    They said, ‘Burn him and avenge your gods, if you are going to do the right thing.’ But We said, ‘Fire, be cool and safe for Abraham.’ They planned to harm him, but We made them suffer the greatest loss.

    Qurʾān — 21:68-70

    The only answer Abraham’s people gave was, ‘Kill him or burn him!’ but God saved him from the Fire: there truly are signs in this for people who believe.

    Qurʾān — 29:24


    [And about Noah:]

    So they said, ‘Noah, if you do not stop this, you will be stoned.’

    Qurʾān — 26:116


    [And Pharaoh threatened Moses with prison:]

    [Pharaoh] said, ‘If you take a god other than me, I will surely place you among those imprisoned.’

    Qurʾān — 26:29


    [And Lot was threatened with expulsion from his home:]

    but they replied, ‘Lot! If you do not stop this, you will be driven away.’

    Qurʾān — 26:167


    4 The Human being is free and responsible for his actions

    Verses that point out that the human being is free in his choice of the religion he wishes, if he wills he believes, and if he wills he disbelieves, and that he is responsible for his choice in front of God ﷻ.


    Say [Prophet], ‘Disbelievers: I do not worship what you worship, you do not worship what I worship, I will never worship what you worship, you will never worship what I worship:ᵃ you have your religion and I have mine.’

    Qurʾān — 109:1-6

    ᵃ : If you keep to your present gods (see Zamakhshari, al-Kashshaf, vol. iv)


    Say, ‘Now the truth has come from your Lord: let those who wish to believe in it do so, and let those who wish to reject it do so.’ We have prepared a Fire for the wrongdoers that will envelop them from all sides. If they call for relief, they will be relieved with water like molten metal, scalding their faces. What a terrible drink! What a painful resting place!

    Qurʾān — 18:29


    Whoever accepts guidance does so for his own good; whoever strays does so at his own peril. No soul will bear another’s burden, nor do We punish until We have sent a messenger.

    Qurʾān — 17:15


    We said, ‘Get out, all of you! But when guidance comes from Me, as it certainly will, there will be no fear for those who follow My guidance nor will they grieve –– those who disbelieve and deny Our messages shall be the inhabitants of the Fire, and there they will remain.’

    Qurʾān — 2:38–39


    So if they believe like you do, they will be rightly guided. But if they turn their backs, then they will be entrenched in opposition. God will protect you from them: He is the All Hearing, the All Knowing.

    Qurʾān — 2:137


    if they argue with you [Prophet], say, ‘I have devoted myselfᵈ to God alone and so have my followers.’ Ask those who were given the Scripture, as well as those without one, ‘Do you too devote yourselves to Him alone?’ If they do, they will be guided, but if they turn away, your only duty is to convey the message. God is aware of His servants.

    Qurʾān — 3:20

    ᵈ : Literally ‘submitted my face’.


    Everything in the heavens and the earth belongs to God. We have commanded those who were given the Scripture before you, and We command you, to be mindful of God. Even if you do ignore Him, everything in the heavens and the earth belongs to Him, and He is self-sufficient, worthy of all praise.

    Qurʾān — 4:131


    Now clear proof has come to you from your Lord: if anyone sees it, that will be to his advantage; if anyone is blind to it, that will be to his loss –– [Say], ‘I am not your guardian.’

    Qurʾān — 6:104


    Say, ‘People, the Truth has come to you from your Lord. Whoever follows the right path follows it for his own good, and whoever strays does so to his own loss: I am not your guardian.’

    Qurʾān — 10:108


    [Say, Prophet], ‘Worship no one but God. I am sent to you from Him to warn and to give good news. Ask your Lord for forgiveness, then turn back to Him. He will grant you wholesome enjoyment until an appointed time, and give His grace to everyone who has merit. But if you turn away, I fear you will have torment on a terrible Day: it is to God that you will all return, and He has power over everything.’

    Qurʾān — 11:2-4

    And Moses said, ‘If you should disbelieve, you and whoever is on the earth entirely – indeed, God is Free of need and Praiseworthy.’

    Qurʾān — 14:8


    Say, ‘Everyone does things their own way, but your Lord is fully aware of who follows the best-guided path.’

    Qurʾān — 17:84


    I am commanded to recite the Qurʾān.’ Whoever chooses to follow the right path does so for his own good. Say to whoever deviates from it, ‘I am only here to warn.’

    Qurʾān — 27:92


    [Prophet], stand firm in your devotion to the upright religion, before an irresistible Day comes from God. On that Day, mankind will be divided: those who rejected the truth will bear the burden of that rejection, and those who did good deeds will have made good provision for themselves.

    Qurʾān — 30:43–44


    We endowed Luqman with wisdom: ‘Be thankful to God: whoever gives thanks benefits his own soul, and as for those who are thankless––God is self-sufficient, worthy of all praise.’

    Qurʾān — 31:12


    Whoever directs himselfᵇ wholly to God and does good work has grasped the surest handhold, for the outcome of everything is with God. As for those who refuse to do this, do not let their refusal sadden you [Prophet] –– they will return to Us and We shall tell them what they have done: God knows all that hearts contain ––

    Qurʾān — 31:22–23

    ᵇ : Literally ‘his face’.


    it is He who made you [people] successors to the land. Those who deny the truth will bear the consequences: their denial will only make them more odious to their Lord, and add only to their loss.

    Qurʾān — 35:39


    If you are ungrateful, remember God has no need of you, yet He is not pleased by ingratitude in His servants; if you are grateful, He is pleased [to see] it in you. No soul will bear another’s burden. You will return to your Lord in the end and He will inform you of what you have done: He knows well what is in the depths of [your] hearts.

    Qurʾān — 39:7


    Say, ‘It is God I serve, dedicating my worship entirely to Him –– you may serve whatever you please beside Him.’ Say, ‘The true losers are the ones who will lose themselves and their people on the Day of Resurrection: that is the most obvious loss.

    Qurʾān — 39:14–15


    Indeed, We created man from a sperm-drop mixture that We may try him; and We made him hearing and seeing. Indeed, We guided him to the way, be he grateful or be he ungrateful.

    Qurʾān — 76:2–3


    by the soul and how He formed it and inspired it [to know] its own rebellion and piety! The one who purifies his soul succeeds and the one who corrupts it fails.

    Qurʾān — 91:7-10


    By the enshrouding night, by the radiant day, by His creation of male and female! The ways you take differ greatly. There is the one who gives, who is mindful of God, who testifies to goodness –– We shall smooth his way towards ease. There is the one who is miserly, who is self-satisfied, who denies goodness –– We shall smooth his way towards hardship and his wealth will not help him as he falls.

    Our part is to provide guidance –– this world and the next belong to Us –– so I warn you about the raging Fire, in which none but the most wicked one will burn, who denied [the truth], and turned away. The most pious one will be spared this –– who gives his wealth away as self-purification, not to return a favour to anyone but for the sake of his Lord the Most High –– and he will be well pleased.

    Qurʾān — 92:1-21


    This is a reminder. Let whoever wishes take the way to his Lord.

    Qurʾān — 73:19 – 76:29

    but truly this is a reminder. Let whoever wishes to take heed do so:

    Qurʾān — 74:54–55

    This is a message for all people; for those who wish to take the straight path.

    Qurʾān — 81:27–28


    5 Obligation to use the mind, to think and ponder, and prohibition from blindly following the religion of one’s parents

    And such verses have a clear relation to the fourth category, since they show that one should use reason, to observe, understand and ponder, and to be independent in his thinking, and not blindly follow a religion just because of a custom or it being the religion of his/her parents. And that’s what makes one free & responsible in his decision.

    These verses are extremely abundant. According to one estimate, these verses constitute more than 1/8 of the Holy Qurʾān. I’ll mention briefly some of these verses, but to find more of them, one may either open up a random page of the Qurʾān, or use indexed dictionnaries of the Qurʾān such as the one of Muḥammad Fouād ʿAbd al-Bāqī (freely available here), or one may search for the following keywords and their derivatives: عقل, فكر، عبر، نظر، أولي الألباب، ذكر، سير (السير في الأرض)، and the words آباؤنا وآباؤنا، and other similar expressions such as علم. To keep things short in this list, I’ll include just two verses from each keyword.


    But when it is said to them, ‘Follow the message that God has sent down,’ they answer, ‘We follow the ways of our fathers.’ Even though their fathers understood nothing and were not guided?

    Qurʾān — 2:170


    when it is said to them, ‘Come to what God has sent down, and to the Messenger,’ they say, ‘What we inherited from our forefathers is good enough for us,’ even though their forefathers knew nothing and were not guided.

    Qurʾān — 5:104


    in the alternation of night and day, in the rain God provides, sending it down from the sky and reviving the dead earth with it, and in His shifting of the winds there are signs for those who use their reason.

    Qurʾān — 45:5


    [We sent them] with clear proofs and written ordinances. And We revealed to you the message that you may make clear to the people what was sent down to them and that they might give thought.

    Qurʾān — 16:44


    who remember God standing, sitting, and lying down, who reflect on the creation of the heavens and earth: ‘Our Lord! You have not created all this without purpose–– You are far above that!–– so protect us from the torment of the Fire.

    Qurʾān — 3:191


    There is a lesson in the stories of such people for those who understand. This revelation is no fabrication: it is a confirmation of the truth of what was sent before it; an explanation of everything;ᵃ a guide and a blessing for those who believe.

    Qurʾān — 12:111

    ᵃ : There are two interpretations of this phrase: (i) ‘everything to do with the story of Joseph’; and (ii) ‘everything to do with religion’.


    God alternates night and day–– there truly is a lesson in [all] this for those who have eyes to see––

    Qurʾān — 24:44


    Say, ‘Look at what is in the heavens and on the earth.’ But what use are signs and warnings to people who will not believe?

    Qurʾān — 10:101


    So let man observe from what he was created.

    Qurʾān — 86:5


    who listen to what is said and follow what is best. These are the ones God has guided; these are the people of understanding.

    Qurʾān — 39:18


    Have you not considered that God sends water down from the sky, guides it along to form springs in the earth, and then, with it, brings forth vegetation of various colours, which later withers, turns yellow before your eyes, and is crumbled to dust at His command? There is truly a reminder in this for those who have understanding.

    Qurʾān — 39:21


    and We restored his family to him, with many more like them: a sign of Our mercy and a lesson to all who understand.

    Qurʾān — 38:43


    He gives wisdom to whom He wills, and whoever has been given wisdom has certainly been given much good. And none will remember except those of understanding.

    Qurʾān — 2:269


    Say, ‘Travel throughout the earth and see how He brings life into being: and He will bring the next life into being. God has power over all things.

    Qurʾān — 29:20


    All the messengers We sent before you [Muḥammad] were men to whom We made revelations, men chosen from the people of their towns. Have the [disbelievers] not travelled through the land and seen the end of those who went before them? For those who are mindful of God, the Home in the Hereafter is better. Do you [people] not use your reason?

    Qurʾān — 12:109


    6 The purpose of Prophets and Mesengers

    Verses that restrict the functions of Prophets and Messengers (Peace be upon them) in preaching and da’wa, and to give a clear warning, without any type of compulsion or coercion, and that negates the idea that the Messengers have to be guardians and watchers over people.


    if they argue with you [Prophet], say, ‘I have devoted myself to God alone and so have my followers.’ Ask those who were given the Scripture, as well as those without one, ‘Do you too devote yourselves to Him alone?’ If they do, they will be guided, but if they turn away, your only duty is to convey the message. God is aware of His servants.

    Qurʾān — 3:20


    Obey God, obey the Messenger, and always be on your guard: if you pay no heed, bear in mind that the sole duty of Our Messenger is to deliver the message clearly.

    Qurʾān — 5:92


    The Messenger’s duty is only to deliver the message: God knows what you reveal and what you conceal.

    Qurʾān — 5:99


    Whether We let you [Prophet] see part of what We threaten them with, or cause you to die [before that], your duty is only to deliver the message: the Reckoning is Ours.

    Qurʾān — 13:40


    Those who worshipped others alongside God say, ‘If God had willed, we would not have worshipped anything but Him, nor would our fathers. We would not have declared anything forbidden without His sanction.’ Those before them said the same. Are the messengers obliged to do anything other than deliver [their message] clearly?

    Qurʾān — 16:35


    But if they turn away [Prophet], your only duty is to deliver the message clearly.

    Qurʾān — 16:82


    Say, ‘Obey God; obey the Messenger. If you turn away, [know that] he is responsible for the duty placed upon him, and you are responsible for the duty placed upon you. If you obey him, you will be rightly guided, but the Messenger’s duty is only to deliver the message clearly.’

    Qurʾān — 24:54

    If you say this is a lie, [be warned that] other communities before you said the same. The messenger’s only duty is to give clear warning.’

    Qurʾān — 29:18


    [And the messengers said: (c.f. Q.36:13-18)]

    Our duty is only to deliver the message to you,’

    Qurʾān — 36:17


    If they still turn away [remember that] We have not sent you [Prophet] to be their guardian: your only duty is to deliver the message. When We give man a taste of Our mercy, he rejoices in it, but if some harm befalls him on account of what he has done with his own hands, then he is ungrateful.

    Qurʾān — 42:48


    so obey God and the Messenger. If you turn away, remember that Our Messenger’s duty is only to make plain his message.

    Qurʾān — 64:12


    We send messengers only to give good news and to warn, so for those who believe and do good deeds there will be no fear, nor will they grieve.

    Qurʾān — 6:48

    We only send messengers to bring good news and to deliver warning, yet the disbelievers seek to refute the truth with false arguments and make fun of My messages and warnings.

    Qurʾān — 18:56


    Has it not occurred to them that their companionᵃ is not mad but is giving clear warning?

    Qurʾān — 7:184

    ᵃ : This refers to the Prophet ﷺ.


    Say [Prophet], ‘I have no control over benefit or harm, [even] to myself, except as God may please: if I had knowledge of what is hidden, I would have abundant good things and no harm could touch me. I am no more than a bearer of warning, and good news to those who believe.’

    Qurʾān — 7:188


    So [Prophet] are you going toᵃ abandon some part of what is revealed to you, and let your heart be oppressed by it, because they say, ‘Why is no treasure sent down to him? Why has no angel come with him?’? You are only there to warn; it is God who is in charge of everything.

    Qurʾān — 11:12

    ᵃ : Literally ‘Perhaps you will . . .’, but this is a challenging figure of speech.


    Say [Prophet], ‘People, I am sent only to give you clear warning.’

    Qurʾān — 22:49


    [And Noah said:]

    I am here only to give people a clear warning.’

    Qurʾān — 26:115


    You, [O Muḥammad], are not but a warner.

    Qurʾān — 35:23


    It has not been revealed to me except that I am a clear warner.’

    Qurʾān — 38:70


    Say, ‘I am nothing new among God’s messengers. I do not know what will be done with me or you; I only follow what is revealed to me; I only warn plainly.’

    Qurʾān — 46:9


    Say, ‘God alone has knowledge of this: my only duty is to give clear warning.’

    Qurʾān — 67:26


    We sent down the Qurʾān with the truth, and with the truth it has come down –– [Prophet], We sent you only to give good news and warning ––

    Qurʾān — 17:105


    We sent you only to give good news and warning.

    Qurʾān — 25:56


    And those who disbelieved say, ‘Why has a sign not been sent down to him from his Lord?’ You are only a warner, and for every people is a guide.

    Qurʾān — 13:7


    [Prophet] say, ‘I am only here to give warning. There is no god but God the One, the All Powerful, Lord of the heavens and earth and everything between, the Almighty, the Most Forgiving.’

    Qurʾān — 38:65–66


    They ask you [Prophet] about the Hour, saying, ‘When will it arrive?’, but how can you tell [them that]? Its time is known only to your Lord; you are only sent to warn those who fear it.

    Qurʾān — 79:42-45


    I am commanded to recite the Qurʾān.’ Whoever chooses to follow the right path does so for his own good. Say to whoever deviates from it, ‘I am only here to warn.’

    Qurʾān — 27:92


    So [Prophet] warn them: your only task is to give warning

    Qurʾān — 88:21


    So all of these verses restrict and limit the function of Messengers to preaching, warning, and to give good news, using expressions such as “إِنَّمَا” and expressions of negation and restriction. And there other verses that negate that Messengers use or should employ compulsion and coercion, or be guardians over people, …etc


    So [Prophet] warn them: your only task is to give warning, you are not there to control them.

    Qurʾān — 88:21–22


    We know best what the disbelievers say. You [Prophet] are not there to force them, so remind, with this Qurʾān, those who fear My warning.

    Qurʾān — 50:45


    Now clear proof has come to you from your Lord: if anyone sees it, that will be to his advantage; if anyone is blind to it, that will be to his loss –– [Say], ‘I am not your guardian.’

    Qurʾān — 6:104


    What lasts with God is best for you, if you are believers: I am not your keeper.’

    Qurʾān — 11:86


    Whoever obeys the Messenger obeys God. If some pay no heed, We have not sent you to be their keeper.

    Qurʾān — 4:80


    If it had been God’s will, they would not have done so, but We have not made you their guardian, nor are you their keeper.

    Qurʾān — 6:107


    If they still turn away [remember that] We have not sent you [Prophet] to be their guardian: your only duty is to deliver the message. When We give man a taste of Our mercy, he rejoices in it, but if some harm befalls him on account of what he has done with his own hands, then he is ungrateful.

    Qurʾān — 42:48


    yet your people still reject it even though it is the truth. Say, ‘I have not been put in charge of you.

    Qurʾān — 6:66


    Say, ‘People, the Truth has come to you from your Lord. Whoever follows the right path follows it for his own good, and whoever strays does so to his own loss: I am not your guardian.’

    Qurʾān — 10:108


    We have sent the Scripture down to you [Prophet] with the Truth for people. Whoever follows the guidance does so for his own benefit, whoever strays away from it does so at his own peril: you are not in charge of them.

    Qurʾān — 39:41


    As for those who take protectors other than Him, God is watching them; you are not responsible for them.

    Qurʾān — 42:6


    Your Lord has the most knowledge about all of you: if He pleases He will have mercy on you, and if He pleases He will punish you. [Prophet], We did not send you to take charge of them.

    Qurʾān — 17:54


    Have you seen the one who takes as his god his own desire? Then would you be responsible for him?

    Qurʾān — 25:43


    And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed – all of them entirely. Then, [O Muḥammad], would you compel the people in order that they become believers?

    Qurʾān — 10:99


    It is not for you [Prophet] to guide them; it is God who guides whoever He will. Whatever charity you give benefits your own soul, provided you do it for the sake of God: whatever you give will be repaid to you in full, and you will not be wronged.

    Qurʾān — 2:272


    Some of them look at you: but can you guide the blind if they will not see?

    Qurʾān — 10:43


    Though you [Prophet] may be eager to guide them, God does not guide those
    who misguide [others],ᵃ nor will they have anyone to help them.

    Qurʾān — 16:37

    ᵃ : C.f. verse 25 : On the Day of Resurrection they will bear the full weight of their own burden, as well as some of the burden of those they misled with no true knowledge. How terrible their burden will be!


    you cannot guide the blind out of their error: you cannot make anyone hear you except those who believe in Our signs and submit [to Us].

    Qurʾān — 27:81 – Qurʾān — 30:53


    You [Prophet] cannot guide everyone you love to the truth; it is God who guides whoever He will: He knows best those who will follow guidance.

    Qurʾān — 28:56


    Can you [Prophet] make the deaf hear? Or guide either the blind or those who are in gross error?

    Qurʾān — 43:40


    Some of them do listen to you: but can you make the deaf hear if they will not use their minds?

    Qurʾān — 10:42


    You cannot make the dead hear, you cannot make the deaf listen to your call when they turn their backs and leave,

    Qurʾān — 27:80, see also: Qurʾān — 30:52


    And not equal are the living and the dead. Indeed, God causes to hear whom He wills, but you cannot make hear those in the graves.

    Qurʾān — 35:22


    We have sent you [Prophet] with the truth, bearing good news and warning. You will not be responsible for the inhabitants of the Blaze.

    Qurʾān — 2:119


    I am commanded to recite the Qurʾān.’ Whoever chooses to follow the right path does so for his own good. Say to whoever deviates from it, ‘I am only here to warn.’

    Qurʾān — 6:52


    But if they turn away, say, ‘I have proclaimed the message fairly to you all. I do not know whether the judgement you are promised is near or far,

    Qurʾān — 21:109


    Say, ‘Obey God; obey the Messenger. If you turn away, [know that] he is responsible for the duty placed upon him, and you are responsible for the duty placed upon you. If you obey him, you will be rightly guided, but the Messenger’s duty is only to deliver the message clearly.’

    Qurʾān — 24:54


    What about those whose evil deeds are made alluring to them so that they think they are good? God leaves whoever He will to stray and guides whoever He will. [Prophet], do not waste your soul away with regret for them: God knows exactly what
    they do.

    Qurʾān — 35:8


    But [Prophet] are you going to worry yourself to death over them if they do not believe in this message?

    Qurʾān — 18:6


    [Prophet], are you going to worry yourself to death because they will not believe?

    Qurʾān — 26:3


    So leave them, [O Muḥammad], for you are not to be blamed.

    Qurʾān — 51:54


    If they disobey you, say, ‘I bear no responsibility for your actions.’

    Qurʾān — 26:216


    For the self-satisfied one you go out of your way –– though you are not to be blamed for his lack of spiritual growth ––

    Qurʾān — 80:5-7


    If they do not believe you, [Prophet], say, ‘I act for myself, and you for yourselves. You are not responsible for my actions nor am I responsible for yours.’

    Qurʾān — 10:41


    Say, ‘Everyone does things their own way, but your Lord is fully aware of who follows the best-guided path.’

    Qurʾān — 17:84


    [Prophet], say, ‘My people, you carry on as you are, and so will I: you will come to realize who will have a happy homecoming in the Hereafter.’ The evildoers will not prosper.

    Qurʾān — 6:135


    [And Shu’ayb said:]

    My people, do whatever is within your power, and I will do likewise. Soon you will know who will receive a disgraceful punishment and who is a liar. Watch out, and so will I.’

    Qurʾān — 11:93


    Say to those who do not believe, ‘Do whatever you can: we too are doing what we can,’
    and ‘Wait: we too are waiting.’

    Qurʾān — 11:121-122


    Say, ‘O my people, work according to your position, [for] indeed, I am working; and you are going to know
    To whom will come a torment disgracing him and on whom will descend an enduring punishment.’

    Qurʾān — 39:39-40


    [Prophet], say, ‘We are all waiting, so you carry on waiting: you will come to learn who has followed the even path, and been rightly guided.’

    Qurʾān — 20:135


    If they turn away, [Prophet], say ,‘God is enough for me: there is no god but Him; I put my trust in Him; He is the Lord of the Mighty Throne.’

    Qurʾān — 9:129


    7 Having a different religion does not prohibit kindness and justice


    God does not forbid you to deal kindly and justly with anyone who has not fought you for your faith or driven you out of
    your homes: God loves the just.

    But God forbids you to take as allies those who have fought against you for your faith, driven you out of your homes, and helped others to drive you out: any of you who take them as allies will truly be wrongdoers.

    Qurʾān — 60:8-9

    [The arabic word used in this verse ‘birr’ (dutiful respect and compassion) is the same word that the Prophet ﷺ commands Muslims to use in the treatment of their own parents, and he ﷺ says, ‘birr is good manners’ (Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim). This verse is—to borrow an expression used by Shaykh Yūsuf al-Qaraḍāwī—the constitution (dustūr) of relations between Muslims and non-Muslims.]


    [On the authority of Ibn Jarīr, Ibn ʿAbbās (ra) said: Some people of the Ansār that had family ties with [the tribes of] Banū Qurayẓah and al-Naḍīr, and they feared to give them charity – wanting them to convert to Islam, then this verse was revealed:]

    It is not for you [Prophet] to guide them; it is God who guides whoever He will. Whatever charity you give benefits your own soul, provided you do it for the sake of God: whatever you give will be repaid to you in full, and you will not be wronged.

    Qurʾān — 2:272


    Today all good things have been made lawful for you. The food of the People of the Book is lawful for you as your food is lawful for them. So are chaste, believing, women as well as chaste women of the people who were given the Scripture before you, as long as you have given them their bride-gifts and married them, not taking them as lovers or secret mistresses. The deeds of anyone who rejects faith will come to nothing, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers.

    Qurʾān — 5:5

    Another of His signs is that He created spouses from among yourselves for you to live with in tranquillity: He ordained love and kindness between you. There truly are signs in this for those who reflect.

    Qurʾān — 30:21

    [This last verse shows that there must be love and kindness between spouses, and the first verse from Surat Al-Māʾidah made marriage with women of the People of the Book (Christians & Jews) lawful.]


    [And about the polytheist parents:]

    If they strive to make you associate with Me anything about which you have no knowledge, then do not obey them. Yet keep their company in this life according to what is right, and follow the path of those who turn to Me. You will all return to Me in the end, and I will tell you everything that you have done.

    Qurʾān — 31:15


    You who believe, be steadfast in your devotion to God and bear witness impartially: do not let hatred of others lead you away from justice, but adhere to justice, for that is closer to awareness of God. Be mindful of God: God is well aware of all that you do.

    Qurʾān — 5:8


    God commands you [people] to return things entrusted to you to their rightful owners, and, if you judge between people, to do so with justice: God’s instructions to you are excellent, for He hears and sees everything.

    Qurʾān — 4:58

    [And Ibn Kathīr narrated in his tafsīr that Ibn ʿAbbās and Muḥammad b. al-Ḥanafiyyah said, ‘This verse is for the righteous and wicked,’ meaning it is a command that encompasses everyone.]


  12. Assalamu Alaykum

    Why was my comment asking you to please post more articles and update the site, deleted? I hope I didnt come across as being rude.. That was not the intention at all.

  13. I can’t thank you guys enough for how much this site has helped me with my faith. But lately something’s been bugging me. It’s about a little doubt on surah fussilat, from verse 9-12. The starting verse states earth was created in two days or periods. And then says he placed firm mountains and provided blessings in it in 4 days or periods(this includes that 2 days too). And after that he created heavens in 2 days or periods. My doubt is why is earth which is small part of whole universe takes 4 entire days or periods of the whole 6 days to create the entire universe. I know the verses don’t necessarily indicate sequential creation. But still it tells that earth used like 4 days or periods. Or am I misunderstanding something. Can you clarify it?
    Plus what about the accusation that surah 4:95 was rerevealed because of a blind man. It’s in sahih hadith too. I know you don’t accept every sahih hadith, but what would be any rationale behind making up this hadith if it isn’t true.
    I hope I’m not pestering much. These two things were bugging my mind, that’s why I asked.
    Thanks in advance.

    P.S Is there any ideas when next essay/article will be published. It’s been a long time since an essay was published here(I say essay because you had said it once already that this is an essay blog and not a regular one)

    • First of all, something being bigger does not mean it is more complex or harder to create or evolve – so your question is based on the erroneous presumption that the Earth being small is less complex or significant than the Universe. This is incorrect since the most complex thing in the known universe is the human brain and it and indeed intelligence are found to exist only on Earth. It is akin to saying that the ocean is larger than a fish so it should take longer to evolve. But the ocean excluding the life in it is just water and minerals -i.e extremely simple. Furthermore, where did you get this ‘Universe’ created in 2 days/6 days business from? It’s not in this ayat. I think you are referring to OUTSIDE this ayat where it is implied that there are six phases of creation. Anyway, the Earth being around 5 billion years old is comparable in age to the galaxies, and it depends if we are talking about the MATTER from which the earth is formed, which presumably will be from the earliest stars which predate galaxies and were probably around very shortly (400 million years) after the Big Bang or the Earth as it formed WITH the sun. So what ‘earth’ is it talking about?

      If its the interstellar matter or the Sun from which this earth seems to have evolved, then it is of a similar age to the rest of the universe and its evolution took from between 5 billion to 12 billion years, which is similar to the life of the universe i.e from the presumed origin of the universe to the first stars/planets could be 400 million years (with the age of the universe being about 13 billion years presumably). Galaxies formed much later. So it depends from where you want to take this evolution of Earth from, all the way back to interstellar dust or from the formation of the sun (about 5 billion years ago). Either way, its a chunky piece of the life of the universe. Also, things being formed in periods – like the embryo – are usually classed into periods based on their phased evolution and not equal lengths of time. We don’t arbitrarily divide up the phases of either embryonic or the development of Galaxies into equal length periods but rather depending on something distinct. We don’t say here is the universe as a cloud of dust, a hundred million years later it is still a cloud of dust but lets call this a new day or phase or whatever. We wait for some change – for example, the first stars, and we say this is the aeon of the stars or the heart starts beating in a baby etc i.e the phases can be of unequal length and they can be of different number depending on the complexity of the object – so the universe has fewer phases than a human because it doesn’t change much since the time of the formation of galaxies whereas a human undergoes many more periods and changes.

      Also, since it is obvious from the beginning that these verses are referring to the EARTH, why did the universe come into it at all? It makes much more sense that it carries on talking about the formation of different parts of the Earth and atmosphere than suddenly switch from talking about the Earth to the ‘Universe’ – which must already exist before the Earth. Or you can take it as talking about the creation of ‘earth’ and ‘skies’ from ‘smoke’ in two periods – maybe meaning ordinary matter galaxies and intersteller voids from whatever was there before and so on. Zamakhshiri and reliable commentators like him regard all these verses as metaphorical anyway


      And He [it is who] applied His design to the skies, which were [yet but] smoke; and He [it is
      who] said to them and to the earth, “Come [into being], both of you, willingly or unwillingly!”
      – to which both responded, “We do come in obedience.”And He [it is who] decreed that they become seven heavens in two aeons, and imparted unto each heaven its function. And We adorned the skies nearest to the earth with lights, and made
      them secure: such is the ordaining of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.

      So first problem, this doesn’t describe the creation of the universe nor its constituent matter since it says that whatever it is describing being made is made from this pre-existing ‘smoke’. We know the universe didn’t come into being from ‘smoke’ and if it did then the origin of the smoke is what needs explaining if this refers to the universe. It probably refers to the atmosphere. It also doesn’t say at all how long this process took – only that the division into seven took 2 periods – nothing about how long it took to create the skies and the Earth. If you are talking about some other ayats which talk about the universe being created in six periods then that is another matter. At worst, if you were to take that all literally, it would mean that the Quran is saying 5 billion years = 4 days and universes age is 6 days = 7.5 billion years which is off by about 6 billion years from what we currently think. However, I would class the formation of the Earth with the first dust clouds from which starts formed , maybe 8 or 10 billion years ago and then the age of the universe about 12 or 13 billion (not that I would even take this ayat literally or numerically in the first place). However, these do not describe DURATIONS but phases or periods of creation and even then, they were not taken literally even at at time when people used to believe that the universe was created in literal days. For all we know this is talking about God manipulating the Big Bang Singularity or Quantum Fluctuations or something so that the earth could come into being. Who knows. Regarding the actual place where six aeons are mentioned:

      VERILY, your Sustainer is God, who has created the heavens and the earth in six aeons, and
      is established on the throne of His almightiness. He covers the day with the night in swift
      pursuit, with the sun and the moon and the stars subservient to His command: oh, verily, His is
      all creation and all command. Hallowed is God, the Sustainer of all the worlds!

      ”The conjunctive particle thumma which precedes this clause does not always denote order in
      time (“then” or “thereupon”). In cases where it is used to link parallel statements it has often the
      function of the simple conjunction wa (“and”) – as, for instance, in 2:29 (“and has applied His
      design…”, etc.) As regards the term ‘arsh (lit., “throne” or “seat of power”), all Muslim
      commentators, classical and modern, are unanimously of the opinion that its metaphorical use in
      the Qur’an is meant to express God’s absolute sway over all His creation. It is noteworthy that
      in all the seven instances where God is spoken of in the Qur’an as “established on the throne of
      His almightiness” (7:54, 10:3, 13:2, 20:5, 25:59, 32:4 and 57:4), this expression is connected
      with a declaration of His having created the universe.- The word yawm, commonly translated as
      “day” – but rendered above as “aeon” – is used in Arabic to denote any period, whether extremely
      long (“aeon”) or extremely short (“moment”): its application to an earthly “day” of twenty-four
      hours is only one of its many connotations” (ASAD)

      Also, more importantly, this STILL isn’t talking about the creation of the UNIVERSE but of the HEAVENS, despite what Asad says. It is an assumption to take ‘heavens’ as ‘universe’. It could be that these six periods apply to Solar and earth formation only even in the rest of the Quran. In fact it would be possibly weird to say ‘universe and earth’ since universe includes Earth and people rarely make that distinction, although they often distinguish between the earth, as in the surface, and the sky.

      It’s not my job to worry about why people might fabricate hadith and their rationale for doing so. How should I know?! Respectfully, this question seems a bit aimless as what you are really asking is ‘why would people make up hadith?’ which is a bit fresh since you presumably believe that people made up whole religions and gods and that isn’t keeping you up at night. Also, there are lots of articles here and even a book about why people make up hadith.

      SUCH of the believers as remain passive – other than the disabled – cannot be deemed equal
      to those who strive hard in God’s cause with their possessions and their lives: God has
      exalted those who strive hard with their possessions and their lives far above those who
      remain passive. Although God has promised the ultimate good unto all [believers], yet has
      God exalted those who strive hard above those who remain passive by [promising them] a
      mighty reward…

      This is quite plain and obvious. What is your doubt about? Why do I need a hadith to understand it in the first place?

      • You cleared the first one for me, thanks. I should have asked my second question little more clearly, my mistake. My query was that the hadith says, the verse 4:95 was first revealed without the ‘excuse for disabled’ part, and when zaid was about to write the verse in a bone, a blind man next to him asked prophet Muhammad about an excuse for him cuz he is disabled, so another verse was released with the ‘excuse for disabled’ part and the hadith says that the previous verse was abrogated. I have seen many people using this verse to show prophet Muhammad “correcting” allah or that Allah didn’t think about including the part about excuse for disabled first itself cuz he is all knowing. I just don’t know how to respond to that.

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